NCLEX : Other General Biology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for NCLEX

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Example Questions

Example Question #41 : Other General Biology

A nurse is performing a urine dip on a patient with edema. The dip stick shows 1+ protein. The patient is not sure if this is a normal finding or not. How should they be counseled?  

Possible Answers:

Protein in the urine is a healthy sign of proper excretion

Any urinary protein under 2+ is considered normal

No amount of protein in the urine is normal

Any urinary protein under 3+ is considered normal

Correct answer:

No amount of protein in the urine is normal

Explanation:

No amount of protein in the urine is considered normal. The capillaries of the glomerulus are covered in a thin layer of cells called podocytes. These podocytes form a very tight filtration system that, when healthy, prevent all large molecules such as proteins from passing out of the glomerulus and into the Bowman's capsule, while allowing the passage of water, electrolytes, and smaller molecules such as glucose and amino acids.

Example Question #42 : Other General Biology

What effect does aldosterone have on sodium, water, and potassium in the kidney?

Possible Answers:

Aldosterone increases sodium and water resorption and increases potassium excretion in the kidney

Aldosterone increases sodium and water resorption and decreases potassium excretion in the kidney

Aldosterone decreases sodium and water resorption and increases potassium excretion in the kidney

Aldosterone decreases sodium and water resorption and increases potassium excretion in the kidney

Correct answer:

Aldosterone increases sodium and water resorption and increases potassium excretion in the kidney

Explanation:

Aldosterone is a mineralcorticoid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex in response to aldosterone II. An rise in plasma angiotensin levels will effect an elevation in blood volume (and hence blood pressure) by increasing the resorption of sodium and water in the kidney and increasing renal excretion of potassium. 

Example Question #342 : Nclex

How much urine is produced by the average adult in 24 hours?

Possible Answers:

1000-2000ml per day

250-500ml per day

500-1000ml per day

1500-3000ml per day

Correct answer:

1000-2000ml per day

Explanation:

While normal function is possible with a urinary output as little as 500ml/day, normal urinary output is between 1000-2000ml per day, with 1200ml being average with adequate fluid intake.

Example Question #41 : General Biology

The absorption of nutrients and electrolytes from food occurs primarily in what digestive organ?

Possible Answers:

The stomach

The large intestine

The liver

The small intestine

Correct answer:

The small intestine

Explanation:

The majority of nutrients and electrolytes from food are absorbed n the small intestine. The remaining material passes into the large intestine for further transformation into stool. The liver and stomach are important sites of digestion and metabolism but are not the primary site of nutrient and electrolyte absorption.

Example Question #43 : Other General Biology

Which of the following is the main function of the large intestine?

Possible Answers:

Passage of stool toward the rectum

All of these are correct

Housing of intestinal flora colonies

Resorption of water from stool

Correct answer:

All of these are correct

Explanation:

The large intestine serves multiple functions. Large amounts of water are resorbed from stool via aquaporins in the large intestine mucosa, and the remaining matter is passed via a series of slow waves toward the rectum for excretion. In addition the large intestine houses trillions of both beneficial and pathogenic intestinal bacteria and fungi.

Example Question #44 : Other General Biology

What is the name of the dilated portion of the rectum where stool is stored for elimination via the anus?

Possible Answers:

The rectal ampulla

The anal canal

The haustra coli

The sigmoid colon

Correct answer:

The rectal ampulla

Explanation:

Stool that has passed through the large intestine is stored in the rectal ampulla, a dilated portion of the rectum inferior to the sigmoid colon and superior to the anal canal. From there it can be passed into the anal canal and excreted via the anus. The haustra coli are segments or pouches formed along the length of the small intestine, demarcated by the smooth muscle of the taenia coli.  

Example Question #41 : General Biology

Which of the following is a function of the kidney?

Possible Answers:

Production of erythropoietin

All of these are functions of the kidney

Regulation of systemic pH

Elimination of metabolic waste

Correct answer:

All of these are functions of the kidney

Explanation:

The kidneys serve a wide variety of functions.They eliminate waste, including nitrogenous wastes such as urea and ammonium. They regulate systemic pH via resorption of bicarbonate from urine and excretion of hydrogen ions, and regulate blood pressure via the renin-angiotensin system (also known as the RAAS). In addition, the interstitial cells of the kidney are responsible for production of erythropoietin, the hormone that stimulates production of red blood cells.

Example Question #42 : General Biology

The internal anal sphincter is __________, while the external anal sphincter is __________.

Possible Answers:

involuntary . . . voluntary

voluntary . . . involuntary

voluntary . . . voluntary

involuntary . . . involuntary

Correct answer:

involuntary . . . voluntary

Explanation:

The internal anal sphincter is a ring of involuntary smooth muscle that spends the majority of its time in a state of perpetual contraction. It relaxes only when the rectal ampulla is distended. Passage of stool is then controlled by the voluntary constriction of the external anal sphincter.

Example Question #1 : Reproductive Physiology

What is the most common cause of anovulatory infertility? 

Possible Answers:

Poor nutrition

Stress

Hypogonadism

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)

Correct answer:

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)

Explanation:

In polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), luteinizing hormone (LH) levels are elevated, while follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels are often low. Because FSH aromatizes androgens to estrogen, low FSH will cause androgens to increase. Low levels of FSH and high androgens keep the follicle from maturing & prevent ovulation. Hypogonadism is significantly more rare, and while extreme stress and poor nutrition may inhibit ovulation, in the United States PCOS is the leading cause of anovulation (failure to release an ovule from the ovary). 

Example Question #1 : Reproductive Physiology

Which of the following hormones is a precursor for both estrogen and testosterone?

Possible Answers:

Dihydrotestosterone

Aldosterone

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)

Estrone

Correct answer:

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)

Explanation:

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), an endogenous steroid hormone that is a precursor for both estrogen and testosterone, is synthesized from pregnenolone in the gonads, the adrenal glands, and the brain.

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