Human Anatomy and Physiology : Immune Physiology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for Human Anatomy and Physiology

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Example Questions

Example Question #13 : Help With Antigens, Antibodies, And Mh Cs

Antibodies carry out which of the following functions?

Possible Answers:

Releases cytokines

Directly kills a host cell

Directly kills an invading cell

Coats the antigen for destruction

Correct answer:

Coats the antigen for destruction

Explanation:

Antibodies are part of humoral immunity. The humoral pathway protects against extracellular pathogens. Antibodies are produced and secreted by B lymphocytes (B cells). They recognize free antigens, initiate activation of other immune cells, and coat the antigen for destruction (which may or may not be cellular). 

Example Question #14 : Help With Antigens, Antibodies, And Mh Cs

A patient has AB positive blood. Which of the following blood types, if transfused, would cause agglutination?

Possible Answers:

B negative

A positive

AB negative

O negative

None of these

Correct answer:

None of these

Explanation:

An AB positive patient is known as a universal recipient because they can receive blood from any blood type. The recipient's antibodies are what will attack foreign antigens. Type AB positive patients produce no antibodies, because any antibody produced would attack their own antigens, causing agglutination. Because type AB patients patients do not produce antibodies, they cannot attack any antigens and they can receive any blood type.

Example Question #1201 : Human Anatomy And Physiology

Which of the following is a key difference between the innate and the adaptive immune systems?

Possible Answers:

The adaptive immune system fights antigens at a more efficient rate during subsequent exposures after the first

The innate immune system can fight cancers and autoimmune reactions, while the adaptive immune system can only fight bacteria

The adaptive immune system fights bacteria, while the innate immune system fights viruses

The innate immune system cannot attack antigens that it does not recognize

The adaptive immune system utilizes T-cells, whereas the innate immune system utilizes B-cells

Correct answer:

The adaptive immune system fights antigens at a more efficient rate during subsequent exposures after the first

Explanation:

The two types of immune reactions found in the human body are the innate and adaptive immune systems. The innate immune system is the first defense for common antigens that enter the body, and will respond to any and all foreign antigens that it detects. The adaptive immune system utilizes antibodies to fight antigens that reappear in the body during subsequent exposures, and allows the system to more uniquely attack the specific antigen. Both systems can respond to a variety of different pathogens, including bacteria and viruses.

Example Question #31 : Immune Physiology

Which of the following organs is not involved in the immune response?

Possible Answers:

Thymus

Bone marrow

Spleen

Heart

Lymph nodes

Correct answer:

Heart

Explanation:

The heart is the only organ listed that is not involved in the immune response. The thymus is the site of T-cell maturation, while bone marrow is the site of B-cell maturation. The lymph nodes and spleen are sites of blood filtration to ensure that there are no pathogens in the system.

Example Question #1 : Help With Other Adaptive Immunity Physiology

Which of the following is not a characteristic of the adaptive immune system? 

Possible Answers:

Memory component 

Differentiates between foreign and self cells 

General response to an invasion 

Produces antibodies 

Takes a week or two to develop 

Correct answer:

General response to an invasion 

Explanation:

The innate immune system is the general, non-specific response to pathogens. It does not involve a memory component. The adaptive immune system is the more complex, specific response to pathogens. The adaptive immune system takes longer to develop, is able to discriminate between self cells and non self cells, and has a memory component so the second reaction is a quicker response to infection. 

Example Question #1 : Help With Other Adaptive Immunity Physiology

Where does the processing and maturation of T-lymphocytes occur? 

Possible Answers:

Thyroid 

Spleen

Thymus 

Blood 

Bone marrow 

Correct answer:

Thymus 

Explanation:

The thymus is one of two primary lymphoid tissues and is the site of T cell processing, and maturation. These cells are sometimes referred to as thymocytes. The bone marrow is the other primary lymphoid tissue and is the site of B cell maturation. 

Example Question #1 : Help With Other Adaptive Immunity Physiology

Which is an organ of the immune system?

Possible Answers:

Stomach

Spleen

Liver

Heart

Gallbladder

Correct answer:

Spleen

Explanation:

Tissues of the immune system are classified as central (primary) or peripheral (secondary). Peripheral tissues initiate adaptive immune responses. Peripheral lymphoid organs include: lymph nodes, spleen, and the mucosal and cutaneous immune systems (ex: peyers patches in the gastrointestinal tract).

Example Question #1 : Innate Immunity

What is the purpose of basophils?

Possible Answers:

They cause inflammation in order to allow more leukocytes to migrate to the affected area

They engulf bacteria and pathogens in the body

They release antibodies for one specific antigen

They aid in destroying parasites and addressing allergic reactions

Correct answer:

They cause inflammation in order to allow more leukocytes to migrate to the affected area

Explanation:

Basophils are part of the innate immunity, and are a key player for stimulating inflammation. Basophils release histamine, which dilates blood vessels and increases the permeability of capillaries. This allows an infection to be walled off in the affected area and helps other white blood cells migrate to the area.

Eosinphils are involved in parasitic immunity and allergic reactions. Neutrophils, macrophages, and monocytes are responsible for phagocytosing foreign pathogens. B-lymphocytes release antibodies against a specific antigen.

Example Question #1 : Help With Cells Of Innate Immunity

Which of the following leukocytes is NOT a granulocyte?

Possible Answers:

Lymphocyte

Neutrophil

Eosinophil

Basophil

Correct answer:

Lymphocyte

Explanation:

White blood cells can be classified by whether or not they have granules in their cytoplasm (granulocytes and agranulocytes). There are three types of granulocytes, and all of them end in the suffix "-phil." Neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils are considered granulocytes. Lymphocytes are agranulocytes, and do not have granules present in their cytoplasm.

Example Question #31 : Immune Physiology

Which white blood cell type will notably increase during allergies and parasitic infections?

Possible Answers:

Eosinophils

Lymphocytes

Neutrophils

Monocytes

Basophils

Correct answer:

Eosinophils

Explanation:

The white blood cells are typically categorized into several major types. Each of these types have specific roles in the body, and their proportions will change during specific body conditions. Basophils are used to dilate blood vessels by releasing histamine and eosinophils become elevated during parasitic infections and allergy season. Neutrophils play an important role in recruiting other immune cells to damaged tissues. Lymphocytes include B-cells and T-cells and are involved in the adaptive immune response. Monocytes are the preliminary cells that differentiate into macrophages, which are involved in non-specific phagocytosis.

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