Human Anatomy and Physiology : Immune Physiology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for Human Anatomy and Physiology

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Help With Antigens, Antibodies, And Mh Cs

MHC I is found on which cell types?

Possible Answers:

All nucleated cells 

None of the other answers 

Antigen presenting cells only 

B cells only

Phagocytic cells only 

Correct answer:

All nucleated cells 

Explanation:

MHC I is found on all nucleated cells and presents antigens to cytotoxic T lymphocytes. These cytotoxic T cells contain CD8 receptors, which binds to MHC I. MHC II cells are found on B-lymphocytes and antigen presenting cells only. MHC II presents antigens to helper T cells, which contain CD4 receptors. 

Example Question #1 : Help With Antigens, Antibodies, And Mh Cs

What type of immunoglobulin plays an important role in the allergic response?

Possible Answers:

IgE

IgE

IgD 

IgM

IgG

Correct answer:

IgE

Explanation:

IgE is able to bind via the (fragment crystallizable) Fc region to mast cells and basophils. This binding allows these cells to release their granule contents involved in many allergic reactions. 

Example Question #2 : Help With Antigens, Antibodies, And Mh Cs

Immunoglobin M (IgM) __________.

Possible Answers:

is the first antibody produced in response to an infection 

binds to mast cells and basophils 

is the most abundant class in the blood and tissue fluids 

is a monomer 

has the ability to cross the placenta 

Correct answer:

is the first antibody produced in response to an infection 

Explanation:

IgM is the first antibody produced during the primary immune response. It is the only immunoglobulin whose shape is a pentamer. IgG is the most abundant immunoglobulin class in the blood and tissue and has the ability to cross the placenta. IgE binds to basophils and mast cells and is involved in the allergic response. 

Example Question #24 : Immune Physiology

A patient has A positive blood type. What type of blood can this patient receive?

Possible Answers:

AB positive

None of these

O positive

B positive

AB negative

Correct answer:

O positive

Explanation:

For any recipient, we must consider what antibodies they have. A patient with A positive blood has the following antibodies: anti-B For any donor, we must consider what antigens they have. The donor cannot have an antigen that matches the recipient's antibodies, or else agglutination will occur. Therefore, any B blood types will result in agglutination. The O positive person only expresses the Rh antigen, and the recipient does not express this antibody. No agglutination will occur.

Example Question #21 : Immune Physiology

A patient with O negative blood needs a transfusion. What blood type can they safely receive?

Possible Answers:

B negative

B positive

A negative

None of these

AB negative

Correct answer:

None of these

Explanation:

A person with O negative blood is known as the universal donor because their blood cells completely lack antigens. This means their blood cannot be recognized as foreign by a donor. For blood transfusions, we must keep in mind the recipient's antibodies. For an O negative recipient, he/she produces A and B antigens, and Rh antigens if they have been previously exposed to Rh positive blood. That means they cannot accept blood from donors with A, B or possibly Rh positive blood. They must receive O negative blood only.

Example Question #26 : Immune Physiology

Which of the following statements are true?

I. An Rh negative patient can receive Rh positive blood once without a reaction, but any subsequent exposure will result in agglutination

II. An Rh positive patient can receive Rh negative blood once without a reaction, but any subsequent exposure will result in agglutination

III. An Rh negative patient can receive Rh negative blood once without a reaction, but any subsequent exposure will result in agglutination

Possible Answers:

I only

I and II

I and III

III only

I, II and III

Correct answer:

I only

Explanation:

Rh negative people are not born with Rh antibodies. After exposure to Rh positive blood, the Rh negative patient will begin producing Rh antibodies. Any subsequent exposure will cause agglutination. This has applications in childbirth, if there mother is Rh negative, and the baby is Rh positive. It is possible for the baby's blood to come in contact with the mother's (especially during childbirth). Neither the baby nor the mother are at risk, however, if the mother has another baby that is Rh positive, the mother will have antibodies from when she first encountered Rh positive blood from the previous baby. This may cause harm to the second (and any subsequent) Rh positive babies.

Example Question #11 : Help With Antigens, Antibodies, And Mh Cs

Which of the following correctly lists the antibodies and antigens an person with A positive blood has?

Possible Answers:

Antibodies: B

Antigens: A, Rh

Antibodies: A, Rh

Antigens: B

None of these

Antibodies: A, Rh

Antigens: A, Rh

Antibodies: A, B, Rh

Antigens: A, Rh

Correct answer:

Antibodies: B

Antigens: A, Rh

Explanation:

Blood antigens are the protein markers on the surface of red blood cells. On an A positive red blood cell, there is the A marker (antigen) and the Rh marker (antigen). Antibodies are found in the blood plasma, and these bind to foreign antibodies to cause agglutination. People produce antibodies for the antigens they do not have (Rh antibodies are only made after exposure to Rh positive blood). An A positive person will express the B antibody.

Example Question #22 : Immune Physiology

Which of the following correctly lists the antibodies and antigens an person with AB positive blood has?

Possible Answers:

Antibodies: A, B, Rh

Antigens: none

Antibodies: B

Antigens: A, Rh

Antibodies: A, B

Antigens: A, B, Rh

Antibodies: Rh

Antigens: A, B

Antibodies: none

Antigens: A, B, Rh

Correct answer:

Antibodies: none

Antigens: A, B, Rh

Explanation:

Blood antigens are the proteins markers on the surface of a red blood cell. On an AB positive red blood cell, there is the A marker (antigen), the B marker (antigen) and the Rh marker (antigen). Antibodies are found in the blood plasma, and these bind to foreign antibodies to cause agglutination. People produce antibodies for the antigens they do not have (Rh antibodies are only made after exposure to Rh positive blood). An AB positive person will not have any antibodies, otherwise they would bind to their own red blood cells and cause agglutination.

Example Question #12 : Help With Antigens, Antibodies, And Mh Cs

Which of the following are true, assuming A, B, O blood type compatibility?

I. An Rh positive patient cannot receive blood from an Rh negative donor

II. An Rh negative patient cannot receive blood from an Rh positive donor

III. An Rh negative patient can only receive blood from an Rh negative donor

Possible Answers:

II and III

I, II, and III

II only

III only

I only

Correct answer:

II and III

Explanation:

We must first assume the two people are A, B, O compatible (ie., both patients are type A). An Rh negative person is negative because they lack the Rh antigen. An Rh positive person does not produce any Rh antibodies or else they would attack their own blood. Therefore, there is no antigen to attack and no antibodies to attack with, so agglutination will not occur.

Example Question #24 : Immune Physiology

The immune system has two components: innate (non-specific, which is internal to someone's system from birth) and adaptive (which responds to specific antigens and develops over time). Part of the adaptive system is the humoral system, which involves antibodies. How does the humoral antibody-mediated system work?

Possible Answers:

Blood delivers T-lymphocytes to the area, where they can fight intracellular pathogens

The skin acts as a surface barrier to protect the body

Internal defenses like inflammation and antimicrobial proteins exist within the body to fight antigens

Blood delivers antibodies and B-lympocytes to the area of injury, where they can fight extracellular pathogens

Correct answer:

Blood delivers antibodies and B-lympocytes to the area of injury, where they can fight extracellular pathogens

Explanation:

Skin is an innate external defense barrier and does not involve antibodies. Inflammation and antimicrobial proteins are innate internal defense mechanisms, and are not pathogen-specific. T-lymphocytes are adaptive cell-mediated defense mechanisms. The humoral system, though, is part of the adaptive immune system, which delivers antibodies through blood to fight antigens extracellularly.

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