Human Anatomy and Physiology : Help with Evaluation Methods for the Immune System

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for Human Anatomy and Physiology

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Help With Evaluation Methods For The Immune System

Name the protein most directly involved leukocyte rolling during diapedesis.

Possible Answers:

CD31

ICAMs

Integrins

Selectins

Correct answer:

Selectins

Explanation:

Selectins are most involved in the process of leukocyte rolling—or diapedesis—while ICAMs and integrins are involved in leukocyte firm and CD31 is involved in leukocyte transmigration.

Example Question #11 : Immune System

Endothelial cell retraction involves which of the following?

Possible Answers:

Histamine

Neutrophils

TNF-alpha

Il-1

Correct answer:

Histamine

Explanation:

During endothelial cell retraction, gaps form between the cells as their cytoskeletons are rearranged to decrease the cell's area. This is a result of histamine, which causes increased vascular permeability; endothelial cell retraction allows fluids to pass between the cells, contributing to the inflammatory effects of histamine.

Example Question #12 : Immune System

Which of the following tests best detects antigens in serum?

Possible Answers:

ELISA test

DNA microarray

Precipitation test

Agglutination test

Correct answer:

ELISA test

Explanation:

An ELISA test would best look at antigens present in serum by using secondary antibodies to bind to antigen-antibody complex and change color, showing if an antigen is present. DNA microarray would just show genes activated. Precipitation and agglutination reactions are not as sensitive as ELISA.

Example Question #13 : Immune System

Which type of white blood cell releases histamine and heparin?

Possible Answers:

Monocyte

Lymphocyte

Basophil

Eosinophil

Neutrophil

Correct answer:

Basophil

Explanation:

Neutrophils are responsible for destroying bacteria, eosinophils respond to parasitic worms and allergens, lymphocytes destroy cancerous or infected cells, and monocytes phagocytize pathogens and debris.

Example Question #2 : Help With Evaluation Methods For The Immune System

Which of the following cells is stimulated to release histamine?

Possible Answers:

Natural killer cell

Macrophage

Neutrophil

Mast cell

Correct answer:

Mast cell

Explanation:

Mast cell functions in allergic responses by release histamine and other chemicals that promote inflammation. Macrophages are part of the innate immune system and function to engulf and remove debris. Neutrophils are also part of the innate immune system and have macrophagic properties, especially when fighting bacterial infection. Natural killer cells bind to and destroy pathogens without the use of antigens.

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