All Human Anatomy and Physiology Resources
Example Question #33 : Introductory Concepts
The term "mental" pertains to which of the following?
"Mental" is associated with the most anterior point of the mandible (chin). There is also a somatic nerve called the mental nerve located in the chin.
The skull is associated with the term "cranial", and the navel is associated with "umbilical." The physiological term for the ear is the otic, and the term for nose is nasal.
Example Question #1 : Defining Anatomical Structural Terms
To what does the term "cervical" refer?
Back of the head
The cervical region refers to the neck, which contains the seven cervical vertebrae. This region of the spine is the most flexible, allowing for anterior, posterior, and lateral deviations as well as twisting.
The coxal region refers to the hip joint, which is located lateral to the pelvis, but on the same level of the body as the coccyx. The term "occipital" refers to the back of the head, which houses the occipital lobe of the cerebrum and the occipital bone of the skull. Structures in the knee often contain the term "patellar" in reference to the patella bone located in this region.
Example Question #35 : Introductory Concepts
Which of the following terms describes a hole that passes through a bone, especially in the skull?
There are holes and cavities in many bones of the body, with a large number located in the skull. These holes allow nerves, arteries, and veins to enter and pass through the bones. These holes are called foramen, and range in size depending on what passes through them. For example, the foramen magnum in the skull is where the spinal cord exits.
Example Question #2 : Defining Anatomical Structural Terms
Skin, hair, and nails are associated with which biological organ system?
The skin, hair, and nails are associated with the integumentary system. The integumentary system is an organ system whose purpose is to protect the body from infectious diseases and bacteria.
The skeletal system gives us structure, support, protection, and leverage. Muscle gives us movement. Together, these elements form the musculoskeletal system. The endocrine system keeps our hormones leveled (prevents over or underproduction) and regulates metabolism. The immune system protects our bodies agains bacteria and viruses. The difference between the integumentary and immune systems is because the integumary system is for the first line of defense (i.e. a minor cut) and immune system is for the second line of defense (i.e. if bacteria from a cut infects your body).
Epithelial is a general tissue classification, and is not considered an organ system. Much of the integumentary system is composed of epithelial tissue.
Example Question #3 : Defining Anatomical Structural Terms
The wrist is always __________ to the elbow.
The wrist is distal to the elbow simply because it is farther from the appendage attachment (in this case the shoulder). Proximal means that the structure is located closer to the appendage attachment. Lateral indicates that the structure is farther from the midline, while medial indicates that a structure is closer to the midline, relative to a point of comparison. In anatomical position, the wrist is lateral to the elbow; however, this is not always the case, depending on mostion of the arm. Horizontal means that if a horizontal line were cut through the middle of the body that both the elbow and the wrist would be on the same plane; this is not the case.
Example Question #4 : Defining Anatomical Structural Terms
Which of the following descriptors is false regarding enzymes?
They function as biological catalysts
They are proteins
They are consumed during the reaction
They affect only the rate of a chemical reaction
They lower the activation energy required for a reaction
They are consumed during the reaction
Enzymes are not consumed during the reaction. The enzymes are instead used to speed up a reaction by lowering activation energy. Enzymes are proteins, which are made up of amino acids. They are not consumed because they attach to the substrate and are released after the reaction is complete. As a catalyst's purpose is to speed up reactions, enzymes are classified as biological catalysts.
Example Question #5 : Defining Anatomical Structural Terms
How many divisions does the mediastinum contain?
The mediastinum is an area found in the thorax that is contained by the pleural cavities laterally, by the sternum and the abdomen muscles anteriorly, and the vertebral column in the back. It has four main divisions: the superior, anterior, middle, and posterior. The different regions that make up the mediastinum contain important structures, vessels, and nerves. It is important to note that the mediastinum does not contain the lungs.
Example Question #6 : Defining Anatomical Structural Terms
The spinal cord passes through what general structure of bones?
None of these.
The spinal cord passes through a large hole in the base of the skull called the foramen magnum. Foramen are holes that vessels or nerves pass through. Nerves and veins can line grooves as well, but grooves are not enclosed. Fossa are small depressions in bones. Tubercles are raised projections on bones such as the tibial tuberosity that can be felt on the anterior portion of the leg just inferior to the knee.
Example Question #7 : Defining Anatomical Structural Terms
Where is the cervical region?
The cervical region refers to the neck, including the "neck" of the uterus in females which is referred to as the cervix. The face is known as the facial region, the chest is the pectoral or thoracic region, and the arm is known as the brachial region.
Example Question #8 : Defining Anatomical Structural Terms
What is the antebrachial region?
The antebrachial region is the forearm area. The arm, which includes the biceps area, is known as the brachial region. The thigh is known as the femoral region. The buttocks is also known as the gluteal region.