AP Psychology : Interpersonal Perceptions and Dynamics

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Psychology

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Example Questions

Example Question #71 : Ap Psychology

According to Sternberg's Theory of Love, which of the following occurs during Passionate Love?

Possible Answers:

Oxytocin rises

Vasopressin rises

Pink Lens Effect

All of these

Dopamine rises

Correct answer:

All of these

Explanation:

Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that interacts with the brain's reward and pleasure centers, while oxytocin and vasopressin are known as the "hormones of attachment". The Pink Lens Effect refers to the feeling a person in love often has that convinces him/her that his/her loved one is perfect and can do no wrong.

Example Question #72 : Ap Psychology

The Commons Dilemma can be solved (peacefully) by __________.

Possible Answers:

None of these

Strengthening In-Group biases

Dividing and conquering

Teaching groups to respect their neighbors and conserve resources

Diffusion of responsibility

Correct answer:

Teaching groups to respect their neighbors and conserve resources

Explanation:

The Commons Dilemma, or Tragedy of the Commons, refers to the tendency of groups (or individuals) sharing a common resource to each prioritize their own self-interest and claim more of the resource than is their fair share. This tendency can be combatted by teaching everyone that the needs of their neighbors should be valued as much as their own, and that they should act accordingly.

Example Question #73 : Ap Psychology

Paul Ekman found that most people _________.

Possible Answers:

recognize the emotions expressed by facial expressions only within their own culture.

do not recognize the emotions expressed by facial expressions, but rather by other social cues.

recognize the emotions expressed by facial expressions similarly.

None of these answers is correct.

Correct answer:

recognize the emotions expressed by facial expressions similarly.

Explanation:

Paul Ekman's work on universal facial expressions asserts that most people recognize emotions similarly. Ekman's primary example is that smiles are almost universally recognized as expressing happiness across cultures. While cultural norms and styles of communication may radically the frequency of a given expression, or the social context in which they are made, the fundamental expression is recognized across cultures.

Example Question #74 : Ap Psychology

Colin recently had a night out with his friends instead of helping his cousin who was moving to a new apartment. When his cousin called him, he lied telling him he had a lot of schoolwork to finish. Now, Colin is feeling uncomfortable and ill at ease with himself since he has always considered himself to be someone who valued honesty especially when it came to family. Which of the following choices best describes Colin’s experience?

Possible Answers:

Low psychological absorption

Cognitive dissonance 

Self-immunization

Reactance

Correct answer:

Cognitive dissonance 

Explanation:

Colin's actions do not line up with his beliefs in this scenario and that causes a sense of conflict or tension, which psychologists label cognitive dissonance. According to this concept, Colin will be motivated to resolve the dissonance by either changing his beliefs or his actions. Hopefully, he will choose to work on his actions. Of note, low psychological absorption is a made up concept. Reactance has to do with our sense of freedom. Self-immunization involves minimizing our failures.

Example Question #75 : Ap Psychology

According to social psychology, which sex is more selective with mates and why?

Possible Answers:

Women because there are higher social and biological risks

Men because there are lower social and biological risks

Women because there are lower social and biological risks

Women and men are equally discerning with mates 

Men because there are higher social and biological risks

Correct answer:

Women because there are higher social and biological risks

Explanation:

It is a well-known fact in social psychology, particular in the study of romantic relationships, that women are choosier about mates than men. This is because there is a higher social and biological risk for women who pick bad mates (e.g. social stigma and the biological costs associated with rearing children alone).

Example Question #81 : Ap Psychology

Research has indicated that physical attractiveness has an effect on which of the following?

Possible Answers:

Average salary

Romantic relationships

Perception of intelligence

All of these

Job interviews

Correct answer:

All of these

Explanation:

Physical attractiveness has an affect in nearly every part of life. Due to psychological phenomena like the halo effect (e.g. when one character trait of a person leads others to assume other traits about them), physical attractiveness can lead individuals to believe that someone seems more intelligent, likeable, or competent. In terms of job interviews and average salary, studies have shown that conventionally attractive people tend to get jobs more easily and make more money. And, of course, physical attractiveness is one criterion that people consider important with regard to dating and relationships.

Example Question #81 : Social Psychology

Which of the following social psychology concepts best describes when an individual assesses a relationship in terms of its costs and benefits?

Possible Answers:

Equity theory

Mere exposure effect

The halo effect

Comparison level for alternatives

Social exchange theory

Correct answer:

Social exchange theory

Explanation:

Social exchange theory is the idea that social relationships are an exchange in which a participant tries to maximize benefits and minimize costs (e.g. if the costs get too high or the benefits too low, then an individual will end the relationship). 

While intriguing, the other choices are incorrect. Comparison level for alternatives is the idea that people tend to stay in a relationship if they perceive that their relational outcomes would not be better in a different relationship and leave if they believe that their outcomes would be. Equity theory is the idea that people are happier in relationships where there is fair give and take by both people in the relationship.  The halo effect is the idea that people tend to overgeneralize one character trait; for example, if someone is handsome, other people might overgeneralize that positive attribute and assume he's also funny and hardworking. Mere exposure effect is the idea that people tend to like things or people they are familiar with/exposed to more often. 

Example Question #82 : Ap Psychology

Which of the following social psychology concepts explains why somewhat might leave a relationship if they believe a different partner would be nicer to them?

Possible Answers:

Mere exposure effect

Equity theory

Social exchange theory

The halo effect

Comparison level for alternatives

Correct answer:

Comparison level for alternatives

Explanation:

Comparison level for alternatives is the idea that people tend to stay in a relationship if they perceive that their relational outcomes would not be better in a different relationship and leave if they believe that their outcomes would be better (such as a nicer partner).

While intriguing, the other choices are incorrect. Equity theory is the idea that people are happier in relationships where there is fair give and take by both people in the relationship. The halo effect is the idea that people tend to overgeneralize one character trait; for example, if someone is handsome, other people might overgeneralize that positive attribute and assume he's also funny and hardworking. Mere exposure effect is the idea that people tend to like things or people they are familiar with/exposed to more often. \ Social exchange theory is the idea that social relationships are an exchange in which a participant tries to maximize benefits and minimize costs; if the costs get too high or the benefits too low, they will end the relationship. 

Example Question #83 : Ap Psychology

Which of the following social psychology concepts explains why someone might leave a relationship if they believe they are giving more than they are receiving?

Possible Answers:

Mere exposure effect

Social exchange theory

Equity theory

The halo effect

Comparison level for alternatives

Correct answer:

Equity theory

Explanation:

Equity theory is the idea that people are happier in relationships where there is fair give and take by both people in the relationship. 

While intriguing, the other choices are incorrect. The halo effect is the idea that people tend to overgeneralize one character trait; for example, if someone is handsome, other people might overgeneralize that positive attribute and assume he's also funny and hardworking. Mere exposure effect is the idea that people tend to like things or people they are familiar with/exposed to more often. Social exchange theory is the idea that social relationships are an exchange in which a participant tries to maximize benefits and minimize costs; if the costs get too high or the benefits too low, they will end the relationship. Comparison level for alternatives is the idea that people tend to stay in a relationship if they perceive that their relational outcomes would not be better in a different relationship and leave if they believe that their outcomes would be.

Example Question #11 : Interpersonal Perceptions And Dynamics

Which of the following social psychology concepts explains why someone might assume that a handsome man is also intelligent?

Possible Answers:

Social exchange theory

Comparison level for alternatives

The halo effect

Mere exposure effect

Equity theory

Correct answer:

The halo effect

Explanation:

The halo effect is the idea that people tend to overgeneralize one character trait; for example, if someone is handsome, other people might overgeneralize that positive attribute and assume he's also funny and hardworking.

While intriguing, the other choices are incorrect. Mere exposure effect is the idea that people tend to like things or people they are familiar with/exposed to more often. Social exchange theory is the idea that social relationships are an exchange in which a participant tries to maximize benefits and minimize costs; if the costs get too high or the benefits too low, they will end the relationship. Comparison level for alternatives is the idea that people tend to stay in a relationship if they perceive that their relational outcomes would not be better in a different relationship and leave if they believe that their outcomes would be. Equity theory is the idea that people are happier in relationships where there is fair give and take by both people in the relationship. 

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