AP Psychology : Environmental and Genetic Factors

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Psychology

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Example Questions

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Example Question #71 : Developmental Psychology

Which of the following would be considered a non-shared environment? 

Possible Answers:

Differential parental treatment 

School quality 

Consistent discipline from parents.  

Family income

Correct answer:

Differential parental treatment 

Explanation:

Environments that are unique to individuals or those that are experienced differently by each sibling will have varying effects on each sibling. Being treated differently by their parents would create different environments and have different impacts on the behavior of siblings in a family. Non-shared experiences can influence many factors of a child's personality and differentiate them from their siblings. Anything that a person experiences uniquely qualifies as a non-shared environment. 

Example Question #72 : Developmental Psychology

Which of the following carries the genetic material of an individual?

Possible Answers:

Chromosomes 

Cells

Loci

Gene

Correct answer:

Chromosomes 

Explanation:

Chromosomes are made up of DNA and store the genetic material of an individual. Chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells and contain all of our DNA. Genes are found in specific loci (locations) on chromosomes. These terms are commonly used in many areas of psychology that use genetics to describe certain behaviors or outcomes. 

Example Question #72 : Developmental Psychology

Which of the following is considered to be an alternative form of a gene?

Possible Answers:

Chromosomes 

Alleles 

Loci

Cells

Correct answer:

Alleles 

Explanation:

"Alleles" are the different versions of a gene. Alleles can have varying patterns of inheritance like dominant alleles and recessive alleles. They can be found at the same location on a specific chromosome. 

Example Question #22 : Environmental And Genetic Factors

Humans have __________ pair(s) of autosomes and __________ pair(s) of sex chromosomes. 

Possible Answers:

Correct answer:

Explanation:

Humans have a total of 23 chromosomes. 22 of them are autosomes, or non-sex chromosomes, and 1 pair are sex chromosomes. Autosomes are chromosomes that control traits like skin and hair color. Sex chromosomes determine things like gender and different gender characteristics. 

Example Question #73 : Developmental Psychology

The process that swaps genetic material from homologous chromosomes that results in genetic variability and four unique chromatids is known as which of the following?

Possible Answers:

Crossing over

Meiosis

Prophase

Mitosis

Correct answer:

Crossing over

Explanation:

"Crossing over" occurs in prophase I of meiosis. It involves the swapping of genetic material between homologous chromosomes. This creates genetic variability in individuals. Crossing over is extremely important because without genetic variablity humans would be very vunerable to different diseases or dysfunctions. 

Example Question #74 : Developmental Psychology

The trait that is always expressed when at least one of its alleles is present is known as a _________ trait 

Possible Answers:

co-dominant 

None of these

dominant

recessive 

Correct answer:

dominant

Explanation:

A dominant pattern of inheritance describes traits that are expressed over other traits. For example, brown eyes are dominant to blue eyes. It only takes one dominant allele for a trait to be expressed. It takes two recessive alleles for a recessive trait to be expressed. 

Example Question #75 : Developmental Psychology

A trait that is determined by a gene on a non-autosomal chromosome is known as a __________ trait. 

Possible Answers:

dominant

sex-linked

autosomal

recessive

Correct answer:

sex-linked

Explanation:

"Sex-linked" traits are passed down by the X or Y chromosomes of the parents. A female gets the chromosomes XX and a male gets XY. This is especially important in fields like developmental psychology where psychologists need to understand genetic disorders that can effect the cognitive development of a child. Sex linked traits have patterns of inheritance that make them unique from autosomal traits. For example, if a trait is Y linked, then a father will pass it down to all of his sons because he passes down his Y chromosome to each one of them. on the other hand, his daughters would not have the trait because he only passes down an X chromosome to each of them. 

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