AP Psychology : Environmental and Genetic Factors

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Psychology

varsity tutors app store varsity tutors android store

Example Questions

Example Question #11 : Environmental And Genetic Factors

Which of the following is considered to be the most beneficial parenting style?

Possible Answers:

Authoritative

Authoritarian

Passive

Permissive

Strict

Correct answer:

Authoritative

Explanation:

Psychologist Diana Baumrind researched three types of parenting styles: authoritarian (harsh, emphasis on obedience), permissive (unpredictable, lenient), and authoritative (consistent, discussion-based, praising). The authoritative style of parenting is considered to be the most beneficial because of its consistency, predictability, and encouraging nature. As for the other answers, "strict" and "passive" parenting styles do exist, but they are not key terms for specific parenting styles studied in psychology.

Example Question #11 : Environmental And Genetic Factors

Which of the following is not a symptom of fetal alcohol syndrome?

Possible Answers:

Developmental delays

Facial abnormalities

Cognitive delays

Long limbs

Correct answer:

Long limbs

Explanation:

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) can have serious physical and cognitive effects. Lower IQ, eyes being far apart, ears being low down, and smaller stature usually characterize this particular disorder. 

Example Question #12 : Environmental And Genetic Factors

What percentage of genes do fraternal twins share? 

Possible Answers:

None of these

Correct answer:

Explanation:

Fraternal twins are just like regular siblings and share 50% of their genes; however they are born at the same time. Identical twins share 100% of their genetic composition.

Example Question #13 : Environmental And Genetic Factors

Which of the following hormones is considered to be the most important male sex hormone?

Possible Answers:

Estrogen

Human Growth Factor

Progesterone

Testosterone 

Correct answer:

Testosterone 

Explanation:

Testosterone is present in both males and females, but it is extremely important to male’s physical and psychological development. Testosterone triggers all the male characteristics that emerge during puberty and stimulates the growth of the male sex organs during fetal development. 

Example Question #14 : Environmental And Genetic Factors

Dr. Lengua has studied language for over 20 years. She believes that individuals are born with an innate capacity to speak and communicate with others. Which of the following language perspectives best describes Dr. Lengua's views? 

Possible Answers:

Sociocultural 

Behaviorist 

Social interactionist 

Nativist 

Correct answer:

Nativist 

Explanation:

Following a Noam Chomsky "nativist" perspective regarding universal grammar, Dr. Lengua thinks people are born with the ability to communicate regardless of their environmental influences. Social interactionist perspective is the opposite view in that individuals learn language and communication through modeling, dialogue, and corrective feedback. Behaviorist and sociocultural are distractors. 

Example Question #65 : Studying Developmental Psychology

How many genes are contained in the human genome? 

Possible Answers:

Correct answer:

Explanation:

There are approximately 30,000 genes in the human genome. These genes influence many traits including physical and psychological characteristics. Some genes can influence multiple traits, while others influence only a single trait. It is important to understand that the biological basis of genetics in order to fully understand psychology. 

Example Question #11 : Environmental And Genetic Factors

In psychology, the study of the interactions between genes and environmental factors is known as which of the following?

Possible Answers:

Social psychology 

Individual differences 

Behavioral genetics

Environmental psychology 

Correct answer:

Behavioral genetics

Explanation:

Behavioral genetics examines how genes and environmental factors influence behavior. Behavioral genetics often involves twin studies and focuses on three primary factors. First, they study what is known as additive—or shared—genes associated with the trait being examined. Next, they examine shared environments. Finally, behavioral genetics also examines non-shared environments. These three components help to explain the extent to which the presence of a particular trait is due to genetic or environmental factors.  

Example Question #401 : Individual Psychology And Behavior

Which of the following is described as the percentage of variance in a population that is accounted for by genetic factors?

Possible Answers:

Heritability

Gene correlation

Age-trend

GWAs

Correct answer:

Heritability

Explanation:

"Heritability" describes the amount of variance in a trait that is controlled for by genes. For example, height has a high heritability because it is almost exclusively influenced by genes, not the environment. Some psychological traits can have high heritability too. For example, substance abuse problems often run in families. Behavioral genetics has determined that substance abuse problems can be around 50% heritable. This means that even though a child grows up in a drug-free environment, they may still be at risk for inheriting the trait from biological factors. For example, if one of their biological parents had experienced substance abuse issues, then the child could be at risk at also developing them later in life.

Example Question #11 : Environmental And Genetic Factors

Which of the following answer choices would be considered an environmental factor? 

Possible Answers:

Familial genetic disorders

Father's IQ

Family socioeconomic status 

Mother's height 

Correct answer:

Family socioeconomic status 

Explanation:

"Family socioeconomic status" is an environmental factor that has strong influences on several behavioral and developmental traits. Anything that is biologically passed down like a familial disorder or certain genetic trait would fall into the genetic category. Anything that is not determined by biology but by situation or life experiences falls into the environmental category.  

Example Question #71 : Studying Developmental Psychology

Which of the following would best be described as a shared environment between siblings?

Possible Answers:

Family income

Chance experiences

Different school classrooms

Different friend groups

Correct answer:

Family income

Explanation:

Environments that are experienced by all siblings in a family and have similar effects on all the members of the family are considered to be shared environments. Family income would exert similar pressures and experiences on all the siblings in a family. Behavioral genetics studies siblings (often twins) in order to observe the relationship between genetic and environmental factors. They do this by isolating environmental variables. For instance, if psychologists know whether or not siblings possessed a shared environment, then they can determine what traits are most influenced by specific family characteristics and what traits are most influenced by environmental factors outside the home. 

Learning Tools by Varsity Tutors