AP Human Geography : Growth & Diffusion of Industrialization

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Human Geography

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Growth & Diffusion Of Industrialization

Wallerstein's World Systems Theory divides countries of the world into three groups based on all of the following EXCEPT __________.

Possible Answers:

Social standing

Economic development

Political power

Technological development

Population

Correct answer:

Population

Explanation:

The World Systems Theory, created by Immanuel Wallerstein, divides countries of the world into three groups based on political power, social standing, and economic and technological development.  The theory does not categorize countries based on population.

Example Question #1 : Wallerstein's World Systems Theory

Wallerstein’s World Systems Theory begins with __________ in the __________.

Possible Answers:

the Cold War . . . mid-twentieth century

the wave of European imperialism . . . nineteenth century

the Industrial Revolution . . . mid-nineteenth century

the beginning of European colonialism . . . late fifteenth century

the end of European imperialism . . . mid-twentieth century

Correct answer:

the beginning of European colonialism . . . late fifteenth century

Explanation:

Wallerstein’s World Systems Theory postulates that the world is one interconnected collection of nations and states that, due to the initial wave of European colonialism in the late fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, is dominated by economic centers in Europe and North America. The World Systems Theory also suggests that interconnectedness is constantly growing.

Example Question #1 : Critiques Of Industrial Location Models

The least-cost theory is attributed to __________.

Possible Answers:

Immanuel Wallerstein

Alfred Weber

L.L. Zamenhof

W.W. Rostow

Arno Peters

Correct answer:

Alfred Weber

Explanation:

The least-cost theory is attributed to Alfred Weber. The least-cost theory suggests that all major corporations make their decisions about where to house their production and manufacturing facilities based on the least possible combination of costs, so as to derive the greatest possible profit. It is instrumental for understanding the nature and decision making process of multinational corporations.

Example Question #1 : Growth & Diffusion Of Industrialization

Which of the the following products allows its company to be considered a “footloose firm”?

Possible Answers:

Cars

Diamonds

Petroleum

Alcohol

Paper

Correct answer:

Diamonds

Explanation:

A “footloose company” is not tied to any particular location and can relocate in response to changing economic conditions. All of the products—except diamonds—are either going to cause the companies that produce and sell them to be either market or material oriented. This is because diamonds that are mined are the product that is sold by the company. In other words, there is no assembly required. Subsequently, there is no need to consider the relative merits of locating manufacturing centers closer to raw materials or large markets.

Example Question #1 : Rostow's Stages Of Economic Growth

In Rostow's Stages of Economic Growth, which of the following is not a component of the "Take-Off" stage?

Possible Answers:

Technological breakthroughs

Increased urbanization

Focus on textile production

Investment in social infrastructure

Expansion of the secondary sector

Correct answer:

Investment in social infrastructure

Explanation:

Walt Whitman Rostow's 1960 model of stages of economic growth describes how societies become modern, industrial economies over five separate stages. The "take-off" stage, which is the third step, describes the moment when societies move toward full industrialization in certain specific ways, such as technological innovations, urbanization, production of secondary goods such as textiles, and intense growth in specific sectors.

Example Question #31 : Industrialization & Economic Development

Rostow's Stages of Economic Growth include all of the following EXCEPT __________.

Possible Answers:

Drive to Maturity

Age of High Mass-Consumption

Take-Off

Traditional Society

Postmodern Society

Correct answer:

Postmodern Society

Explanation:

Rostow's Stages of Economic Growth include the following five stages: Traditional Society; Preconditions for Take-Off; Take-Off; Drive to Maturity; and Age of High Mass Consumption. Rostow's model is one of the most significant historical models of economic growth. The model does not include "Postmodern Society."

Example Question #1 : Rostow's Stages Of Economic Growth

The second stage of Rostow’s Stages of Development primarily involves __________.

Possible Answers:

External investment and greater exploitation of natural resources

The movement towards a fluid and meritocratic society

Large scale manufacturing and the continuation of primary economic activities

The introduction of natural resources from external sources

The complete abandonment of primary economic activities

Correct answer:

External investment and greater exploitation of natural resources

Explanation:

The second stage of Rostow’s Stages of Development is generally described as “prerequisites for rapid economic growth.” It is the intermediary step between a traditional, agrarian society and industrial explosion. It primarily involves external investment and a much greater exploitation of natural resources.

Example Question #1 : Growth & Diffusion Of Industrialization

How many stages are there in Rostow’s Stages of Development?

Possible Answers:

Four

Five

Eleven

Seven

Three

Correct answer:

Five

Explanation:

There are five stages in Rostow’s Stages of Development: traditional society, preconditions to takeoff, takeoff, drive to maturity, and age of high mas consumption. In the 1960s, American economist called W.W. Rostow developed this theory. It is based off of the models of economic activities.

Example Question #1 : Growth & Diffusion Of Industrialization

Which of the following best describes modern geographers’ main criticism of Rostow’s Stages of Development model?

Possible Answers:

All of these

None of these; Rostow’s model of Stages of Development is nearly universally supported by modern geographers

It places too great an emphasis on economic differences rather than considering cultural and political differences

It does not consider the recent integration of the global economy through telecommunication technologies, like the internet

It presumes that the experience of western economies can be universally applied

Correct answer:

It presumes that the experience of western economies can be universally applied

Explanation:

Rostow’s Stages of Development model is only concerned with economic geography; therefore, it would be unreasonable to criticize it for focusing on economic differences. The primary criticism leveled at Rostow’s model by contemporary geographers is that it presumes that the experience of western economies—and their path of development—can be universally applied. Modern evidence suggests that there are multiple paths to development; furthermore, evidence suggests that development can take on numerous forms.

Example Question #1 : Growth & Diffusion Of Industrialization

The fourth stage of Rostow’s Stages of Development primarily involves ___________.

Possible Answers:

large scale investment in manufacturing and infrastructure

the complete abandonment of primary and secondary economic activities

the development of a large commercial economy and favorable integration into the global economy

the development of environmental policies and social welfare policies

the introduction of investment from external sources

Correct answer:

the development of a large commercial economy and favorable integration into the global economy

Explanation:

The fourth stage of Rostow’s stages of Development primarily involves the development of a large commercial economy, something akin to consumer-capitalism. It also generally involves favorable integration into the global economy.

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