### Test: ACT Science

During digestion, the energy in food is converted to energy the body can use. Scientists use calorimetry experiments to measure the calories, or energy, provided by food when it is digested or burned.

The relationship used to find the heat transferred energy  is given by , where  is the mass of the material,  is the given specific heat capacity, and  is the change in temperature of the material.

In this experiment, food was burned over a Bunsen burner under a can of 200 ml of water. The temperature change of the water and mass change of the food can be used to determine the calories in four different food items.

Table 1 shows the values of the change of mass of the food items, the change in temperature of the water and the energy. Table 2 shows the energy to mass ratio of three of those food items.

Table 1

Roasted Peanut  Peanut    Cracker    Cheese Puff

Water Temp. Initial         23.9 °C           33.2 °C     40.3 °C      53.9 °C

Water Temp. Final           30.0 °C           40.9 °C     55.9 °C      62.8 °C

Food Mass Initial             0.69 g             0.61 g       3.21 g        1.22 g

Food Mass Final               0.38 g             0.21 g       0.91 g        0.48 g

Energy                            1.22 Cal          1.54 Cal     3.12 Cal     1.78 Cal

Table 2

Sample         Energy to Mass Ratio (Cal/g)

1                                 1.36

2                                 3.93

3                                 2.40

 1 Based on the results shown in Table 1 from the experiment, what is the relationship between the mass change of the food sample and the calories in the food?

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