SAT II World History : Southwest Asia

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for SAT II World History

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Rise Of The Ottoman Empire

For what reason was Ottoman Sultan Selim I (1512-1520) famous, despite his short reign?

Possible Answers:

Massive expansion of the Ottoman Empire, including Egypt, Palestine, Syria, and the Hejaz region (which included Mecca and Medina) 

His conversion to Eastern Orthodoxy in 1515

His marriage to courtesan Hurrem Sultan, a Russian slave captured by pirates

His alliance with France at the end of his reign

His conquest of Constantinople, which was owned by the Byzantines

Correct answer:

Massive expansion of the Ottoman Empire, including Egypt, Palestine, Syria, and the Hejaz region (which included Mecca and Medina) 

Explanation:

Despite his short reign, Selim I is famous for his massive military expansion of the Ottoman Empire, including Egypt, Palestine, Syria, and the Hejaz region (which included Mecca and Medina).

Example Question #1 : Southwest Asia

The Battle of Lepanto is important for __________.

Possible Answers:

None of these answers is correct. 

encouraging further Ottoman expansion in the Mediterranean. 

spreading Islam into the heart of Western Europe. 

preventing further Ottoman expansion in the Mediterranean

uniting Christendom and Islam in an alliance against the Barbary forces of North Africa. 

Correct answer:

preventing further Ottoman expansion in the Mediterranean

Explanation:

The Battle of Lepanto (1571) pitted the naval forces of the Ottoman Empire against a combined naval force led by the Spanish Hapsburg Empire. It resulted in victory for the "Holy League" forces of the Spanish and prevented further Ottoman expansion into the Mediterranean. 

Example Question #1 : Rise Of The Ottoman Empire

In which European city was the Ottoman invasion of Europe finally repelled?

Possible Answers:

Budapest

Munich

Athens

Vienna

Paris

Correct answer:

Vienna

Explanation:

The rise of the Ottoman Empire was swift. In the fifteenth century, under Mehmet II, the Ottomans conquered Constantinople (now Istanbul) and shortly after pushed up as far as Bosnia in the Balkans (a country north of Greece). The whole of European Christendom began to grow wary and soon terrified of the Ottoman invasion as they continued up through the Balkans into central Europe, conquering modern-day Albania, Serbia, Montenegro, Croatia, Hungary, and other areas. But once the Ottomans made it to Budapest, they would struggle to get much further. They were repelled time and again by the forces of Christendom and the Hapsburg Empire of Austria at the city of Vienna or in the surrouding territory.

Example Question #1 : Rise Of The Ottoman Empire

Victory at the Battle of Mohacs led to Ottoman control over _______________.

Possible Answers:

Poland

Egypt

Arabia

Hungary

Anatolia

Correct answer:

Hungary

Explanation:

The Battle of Mohacs is a crucial point in the history of the Ottoman Empire, Eastern Europe, and the Kingdom of Hungary. The battle was fought in 1526 between the Kingdom of Hungary, led by Louis II, and the Ottoman Empire, led by Suleiman the Magnificent. It ended in defeat for the Hungarian forces and the loss of Hungarian independence for centuries and the extension of Ottoman rule into Central Europe.

Example Question #1 : Rise Of The Ottoman Empire

The conquest of Constantinople by the Ottoman Empire in 1453 ended the reign of ________________.

Possible Answers:

The Byzantine Empire

The Holy Roman Empire

The Abbasid Empire

The Timurid Empire

The Seljuk Empire 

Correct answer:

The Byzantine Empire

Explanation:

The Ottoman Empire, led by Mehmed II, finally conquered Constantinople in 1453 C.E. bringing to an end the thousand year reign of the Byzantine Empire. The Byzantine Empire emerged from the Eastern Roman Empire, which survived the fall of Rome in the fifth century. For hundreds of years the Byzantine Empire, and the city of Constantinople, was one of the most power and wealthy places in the world. However, with the Fall of Constantinople, the rise of the Ottomans as the preeminent power in the region was complete and the Byzantines were no more.

Example Question #1 : Impact Of The Ottoman Empire

Which empire was often referred to as “the sick man of Europe” during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries?

Possible Answers:

The British Empire

The Russian Empire

The Austro-Hungarian Empire

The Ottoman Empire

The Spanish Empire

Correct answer:

The Ottoman Empire

Explanation:

The “sick man of Europe” was a term first applied to the Ottoman Empire in the middle of the nineteenth century. At the time, the Ottoman Empire was suffering from extreme economic stagnation and had been, for some time, hemorrhaging territory to other empires in a series of disastrous wars. The term has since been used liberally to describe several failing European states and empires.

Example Question #1 : Impact Of The Ottoman Empire

What motivated the British to support the Ottoman Empire in the late nineteenth century?

Possible Answers:

Respect for the history and traditions of the Ottoman Empire

Fears of Russian expansion into the Mediterranean 

Loss of economic opportunities and trading rights in the region 

Repayment of a debt sustained during the Crimean War 

Desire to prevent the French Empire from expanding into the Middle East

Correct answer:

Fears of Russian expansion into the Mediterranean 

Explanation:

Much of British foreign policy in the latter decades of the nineteenth century was intended to combat Russian desires for territorial expansion. The British initially opposed the Russians in the Crimean War and then turned their attentions to bolstering the weakened Ottoman Empire against Russian occupation. The British were very fearful of the consequences to British hegemony if Russia was able to capture Istanbul, or any other important Ottoman city on the Mediterranean.

Example Question #1 : Impact Of The Ottoman Empire

Janissaries were __________.

Possible Answers:

Outcasts in Ottoman society who helped undermine the regime of the Sultans from within

Christian boys kidnapped and raised as highly trained troops in the Ottoman army

Christian missionaries who established outposts in the Ottoman Empire and encouraged religious toleration across the empire

None of the other answer choices is correct; Janissaries were troops in the Russian Empire of Peter the Great

Islamic missionaries who spread the faith to Indonesia and the Philippines

Correct answer:

Christian boys kidnapped and raised as highly trained troops in the Ottoman army

Explanation:

Janissaries were elite troops in the Ottoman army from the middle of the fourteenth century until the early nineteenth century. They were Christian boys kidnapped from the Balkans and Central Europe and raised to be members of a highly organized fighting force.

Example Question #1 : Southwest Asia

The country of Afghanistan was a __________ colony during the nineteenth century. 

Possible Answers:

Chinese

French

British

Russian

Ottoman

Correct answer:

British

Explanation:

Afghanistan was conquered by the British in the nineteenth century, but due to its mountainous terrain and established history of guerrilla warfare against invading people, the British found it very difficult to hold the territory. It was an experience and challenge that would be repeated by the Russians and the Americans in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries.

Example Question #2 : Southwest Asia

Which of these Empires was commonly referred to as "the sickman of Europe" by the end of the ninteenth century? 

Possible Answers:

The Seljuk Empire

The Greek Empire

The Byzantine Empire

The Polish Empire

The Ottoman Empire

Correct answer:

The Ottoman Empire

Explanation:

The Ottoman Empire was the dominant empire of the Middle East and North Africa for much of the Early Modern and Enlightenment period, but by the middle of the ninteenth century the influence of the Ottoman Empire had declined significantly. Many of the Balkan countries declared independence in the last few decades of the century, including Greece, and the Ottoman Empire was being propped up by the French and the British, who wanted to use the declining force as a buffer against Russian expansionist goals.

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