Test: MCAT Physical

Boiling point is the temperature a liquid needs to achieve in order to begin its transformation into a gaseous state. Campers and hikers who prepare food during their trips have to account for differences in atmospheric pressure as they ascend in elevation. During the ascent, the decrease in atmospheric pressure changes the temperature at which water boils.

Further complicating the matter is the observation that addition of a solute to a pure liquid also changes the boiling point. Raoult’s Law can be used to understand the changes in boiling point if a non-volatile solute is present, as expressed here.

In this law,  is the mole fraction of the solvent, is the vapor pressure of the pure solvent, and  is the vapor pressure of the solution. When this vapor pressure is equal to the local atmospheric pressure, the solution boils.

1.

Like boiling point change, osmotic pressure is a property influenced by the addition of solute to solvent. A scientist is studying a solution in a beaker. Osmotic pressure in this solution pulls __________ from __________ solute concentration to __________ solute concentration.  

water . . . high . . . low

solute . . . high . . . low

solute . . . low . . . high

Osmotic pressure only exists across cell membranes

water . . . low . . . high

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