MCAT Biology : Types of Immune System Cells

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for MCAT Biology

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Example Questions

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Example Question #381 : Biology

Which of the following cells would be categorized as an agranulocyte?

Possible Answers:

Eosinophil

Monocyte

Basophil

Neutrophil

Correct answer:

Monocyte

Explanation:

Granulocytes are cells categorized because they have vesicles within their membrane that look similar to a granule. Basophils, eosinophils and neutrophils all present granule-like figures and are categorized as granulocytes. Although they derive from the same myeloid stem cells as the granulocytes, monocytes are categorized as agranulocytes.

Example Question #31 : Immune System

Which of the following molecules is not associated with the function of cytotoxic T-cells?

Possible Answers:

Cytokines

CD8

MHC II

MHC I

Correct answer:

MHC II

Explanation:

In terms of MHC restriction, students should be familiar with the fact that cytotoxic T-cells are CD8+ and MHC I restricted. The alternative T subset, the helperT-ell, is CD4+ and MHC II restricted. Both cells rely on cytokines for growth, survival, and their effector functions. 

Example Question #31 : Types Of Immune System Cells

Eosinophils are play a multi-facted role in the innate immune response especially against parasites. They have been shown to phagocytose different parasites, release cytotoxic granule proteins such as major basic protein (MBP), present antigens to T cells, and produce several different cytokines to promote the inflammatory process. 

Eosinophils play a critical role in innate and adaptive immune response against parasitic infections. Which of the following is not a function of eosinophils?

Possible Answers:

Antibody production

Production of cytokines

Phagocytosis

Release of cytotoxic granule proteins

Antigen presentation

Correct answer:

Antibody production

Explanation:

Eosinophils are unable to produce antibody, which are limited to the B cell lineage.  

Example Question #51 : Immune And Lymphatic Systems

What is the difference between helper T cells and cytotoxic T cells?

Possible Answers:

Helper T cells express CD4 while cytotoxic T cells express CD8.

Cytotoxic T cells directly kill pathogens while helper T cells assist other immune cells in the inflammatory response.

Helper T cells express MHC II while cytotoxic T cells express MHC I.

Helper T cells are more adept at cytokine production.

All of these

Correct answer:

All of these

Explanation:

Generally, cytotoxic T cells express CD8, express MHC I, are adept at killing specific targets, and while they can produce some cytokines, helper T cells predominantly secrete more different kinds of cytokines and larger quantities of cytokines. Helper T cells express CD4, MHC II, and function primarily in producing cytokines to activate and induce other immune cells to function in the inflammatory response.

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