AP World History : Cultural History

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP World History

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Example Questions

Example Question #71 : Ap World History

Why was the Catholic Church in the later Middle Ages often referred to as the "Universal Church" or the "Church Militant"?

Possible Answers:

The Church assisted local rulers in developing new military technology

The Church permanently conquered the Holy Land (present-day Israel and Palestine) as a result of the Crusades

The Church vastly expanded, becoming the majority religion in most parts of the world

Increased persecution of Jews deterred many people from heretical thoughts and beliefs

The Church sponsored multiple crusades and formalized the Inquisition process of punishing heretics

Correct answer:

The Church sponsored multiple crusades and formalized the Inquisition process of punishing heretics

Explanation:

The terms "Universal Church" and "Church Militant" express the formidable power that that Catholic Church attained during the Middle Ages, power which was best exemplified by the Crusades and the Inquisition. While Jews had always been persecuted by the Church, the Inquisition that began in the thirteenth century was more concerned with Christian dissenters. Christianity was the majority religion in Europe, but not in other parts of the world, such as the Holy Land that the crusaders failed to conquer.

Example Question #72 : Ap World History

Military success was important to religion in the Aztec Empire because _______________.

Possible Answers:

members of the military were highly devout and prayed often

men and women captured by the Aztec military were used for human sacrifices

Aztecs tended to lose faith in their religion if military conquests failed

Aztec religion emphasized the conversion of conquered peoples

religious services were only held in times of peace

Correct answer:

men and women captured by the Aztec military were used for human sacrifices

Explanation:

Human sacrifice was crucial to Aztec religion, and continued military success allowed the Aztecs to capture the thousands of people killed in religious ceremonies every year. Otherwise, the Aztec Empire did not play a very hands-on role in the areas it conquered.

Example Question #73 : Ap World History

During the late T'ang and early Song dynasties in China, neo-Confucianism developed from the influence of which other belief system?

Possible Answers:

Zoroastrianism

Manichaeism

Nestorianism

Islam

Buddhism

Correct answer:

Buddhism

Explanation:

All of the belief systems given as options spread to China after the fall of the Han Dynasty, but Buddhism was by far the most influential. Neo-Confucians in the T'ang and Song dynasties mixed traditional Confucian ideas with Buddhist ideas the nature of the soul.

Example Question #74 : Ap World History

In his thirteenth-century text Summa Theologica, Christian theologian Thomas Aquinas advocated for which of the following ideas?

Possible Answers:

Faith and reason do not necessarily oppose one another

Justification through faith alone

The divine nature of Jesus Christ is separate from his human nature

Knowledge of the Church is the only knowledge required of a Christian

There is an ongoing cosmic battle between good and evil

Correct answer:

Faith and reason do not necessarily oppose one another

Explanation:

Thomas Aquinas was part of a growing scholastic movement in late medieval Christianity, meaning he believed that knowledge was important and reason could coexist with faith. Ideas about the duality of Christ and the cosmos come from Nestorianism and Manichaeism respectively, both of which are much earlier Christian belief systems. Justification through faith alone is a tenet of the Protestant Reformation, which came centuries after Aquinas.

Example Question #75 : Ap World History

Which of the following was NOT a major world religion from 600 CE to 1450?

Possible Answers:

Judaism

Buddhism

Roman Catholicism

Islam

Protestantism

Correct answer:

Protestantism

Explanation:

Although early Protestant sects existed in the late medieval period, this new form of Christianity was not widely practiced until the sixteenth century. Martin Luther's 95 Theses, posted in 1517, marked the beginning of what came to be known as the Protestant Reformation.

Example Question #76 : Ap World History

What is the name of the Islamic Caliphate that descended from the Prophet Muhammad's uncle? They ruled an Islamic empire from their capital in Baghdad that lasted from 750 to 1258.

Possible Answers:

Rashidun

Sokoto

Abbasid

Sharifian

Umayyad 

Correct answer:

Abbasid

Explanation:

The Abbasid Caliphate was founded by descendants of the Prophet Muhammad's uncle, al-Abbas and overthrew the Umayyad Caliphate.

Example Question #77 : Ap World History

The Five Pillars of Islam are _________________.

Possible Answers:

Sunni, Shia, Sufi, Alawite, Kurd

Hajj, Quran, dar al-Islam, Umma, Ka'Ba

Shahada, Salat, Zakat, Quran, Hadith

Shahada, Salat, Zakat, Sawm, Hajj

Allah, Mohammed, Quran, Mecca, Medina

Correct answer:

Shahada, Salat, Zakat, Sawm, Hajj

Explanation:

The Five Pillars of Islam are Shahada, Salat, Zakat, Sawm, Hajj. The Shahada is the profession of faith all Muslims must make that "There is no god but God (and) Muhammad is the messenger of God." It is mandatory that one must recite the Shahada to become Muslim. Salat is the daily prayer that Muslims must make five times a day in the direction of Mecca. Salat is traditionally performed at dawn, noon, afternoon, evening, and night though it may be modified based on one's geographic location. Zakat is alms-giving or charity. Zakat is expected of those who have surplus to give, but not of those who do not. Sawm is fasting during Ramadan, the ninth month of the Islamic calendar. One cannot eat between dawn and dusk during the fasting period. Hajj is the pilgrimage to Mecca that all Muslim who have the means to do so are expected to make once in their life.

Example Question #78 : Ap World History

While living in Mecca, Muhammad began to receive the message of Allah through the archangel _________________.

Possible Answers:

Uriel

Sariel

Raphael

Gabriel

Raguel

Correct answer:

Gabriel

Explanation:

Muhammad began to receive the message of Allah through the archangel Gabriel in 610 C.E. Muhammad would go to meditate on the mountain near Mecca called Jabal an-Nour in a cave known as Hira. Muhammad began to speak publicly about the messages transmitted to him by Gabriel, signaling the beginning of the Islamic faith.

Example Question #79 : Ap World History

The Qur'an is divided into chapters, or sections called ________________.

Possible Answers:

sufis

surahs

ummas

hadiths

dar-al Islam

Correct answer:

surahs

Explanation:

The Qur'an is divided into 114 surahs. The surahs are not listed in chronological order in the Qur'an as they were revealed to Muhammad. The first 24 surahs are Medinan, or revealed to Muhammad in Medina. These surahs are generally longer deal with concrete aspects of Muslim life. The other 86 surahs are known as the Meccan surahs. They are often shorter and deal with religious and spiritual aspects of the Muslim faith.

Example Question #80 : Ap World History

The ___________________ are the collection of the spoken words of Muhammad, used in conjunction with the Quran to form Muslim jurisprudence.

Possible Answers:

hadith

ka'ba

umma

haram

surahs

Correct answer:

hadith

Explanation:

The hadith are important in the Islamic faith as they are reported to be the spoken word of Muhammad. The hadith can be used in matters of jurisprudence, meaning they can be used to form Islamic Holy Law. Many hadith are contested as to their veracity and hadith can only be confirmed with multiple accounts attributing the words being spoken by Muhammad.

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