AP Psychology : Defining Abnormalities and Disorders

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Psychology

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Example Questions

Example Question #111 : Defining Abnormalities And Disorders

Which of the following best identify the positive symptoms of schizophrenia?

Possible Answers:

Asociality and hallucinations

Asociality and delusions

Hallucinations and depression 

Hallucinations and delusions

Depression and delusions

Correct answer:

Hallucinations and delusions

Explanation:

Positive symptoms are characteristics that are in excess or beyond typical experience. Hallucinations and delusions are not typically experienced in daily life, while depression is a decreased ability to feel pleasure and asociality is defined as a decrease in social integration.

Example Question #112 : Defining Abnormalities And Disorders

Which of the following is not a negative symptom of schizophrenia?

Possible Answers:

Lack of motivation and pleasure in previously enjoyed activities

Diminished speech

Diminished emotional expression

Social withdrawal

Diminished appetite

Correct answer:

Diminished appetite

Explanation:

Negative symptoms are thoughts, feelings, or behaviors that are present in the average person but diminished in a person with a mental disorder. Diminished appetite is the only option that is not a negative symptom of schizophrenia.

Example Question #21 : Schizophrenia

One symptom of schizophrenia caused Margaret to assume awkward and uncomfortable positions for hours. This __________ behavior made it impossible for others to communicate with her.

Possible Answers:

delusional

negative

anti-social

disorganized

catatonic

Correct answer:

catatonic

Explanation:

Catatonia in individuals with schizophrenia causes limited reactivity to the environment and can include stereotyped behaviors such as repetitive movements or assuming bizarre poses for hours or even days. 

Example Question #21 : Schizophrenia

Schizophrenics experience psychosis, an impaired ability to perceive reality. Which of the following are considered to be the two most common forms of psychosis experienced by schizophrenics? 

Possible Answers:

Hallucinations and delusions 

Tardive dyskinesia and dystonic reaction 

Disorganized speech and delusions 

Catatonia and hallucinations 

Disorganized speech and disorganized behavior 

Correct answer:

Hallucinations and delusions 

Explanation:

Schizophrenics experience psychosis through hallucinations and delusions. Hallucinations are defined as vivid sensations that seem real even though they are not. Hallucinations can occur in any of the five primary senses, although they are most commonly experienced through the auditory system. On the other hand, delusions are defined as false beliefs that persist despite evidence that indicates their falsity. There are multiple kinds of delusions, such as persecutory delusions, delusions of control (i.e. thought insertion), grandiose delusions, and referential delusions. In persecutory delusions, the victim believes others are continually persecuting him or her. Delusions of control, or thought insertions, are related to the belief that other people are controlling the victim. A victim beliefs other people putting thoughts into his or her head; therefore, controlling him or her. Grandiose delusions occur when a person thinks that he or she is significantly more important, great, and powerful than they really are. Last, referential delusions occur when people believe that external events have special meaning for them, and only them.

Example Question #113 : Defining Abnormalities And Disorders

There are three types of major schizophrenia, marked by various different symptoms. What are the major differences between paranoid schizophrenia and disorganized schizophrenia?

Possible Answers:

Paranoid schizophrenics have a flat affect of emotions, while disorganized schizophrenics do not. 

Paranoid schizophrenics have a break between reality and a perception of reality, while disorganized schizophrenics do not. 

Paranoid schizophrenics have delusions of grandeur, while disorganized schizophrenics do not. 

Paranoid schizophrenics possess waxy flexibility, while disorganized schizophrenics do not

Paranoid schizophrenics have auditory hallucinations, while disorganized schizophrenics do not. 

Correct answer:

Paranoid schizophrenics have delusions of grandeur, while disorganized schizophrenics do not. 

Explanation:

The correct answer is "paranoid schizophrenics have delusions of grandeur, while disorganized schizophrenics do not." Two of the other answers, of auditory hallucinations and a break between reality and a perception of reality, are tendencies and symptomatic of all forms of schizophrenia. Waxy flexibility is a characteristic of catatonic schizophrenia. A flat effect of emotions is seen in disorganized schizophrenia, not paranoid schizophrenia. 

Example Question #114 : Defining Abnormalities And Disorders

Which of the following is not true regarding Schizophrenia?

Possible Answers:

Treatment includes psychotropic medications and supportive psychotherapy

Identical twins have a 45-50% chance of also having Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia impacts 10-20% of the population

Dopamine has been linked to the positive symptoms of Schizophrenia

Symptoms can include hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized thinking

Correct answer:

Schizophrenia impacts 10-20% of the population

Explanation:

It is incorrect that Schizophrenia impacts 10-20% of the population. Rather, depression has been found to impact 10-20% of the population. Schizophrenia is less common and impacts about 1% of the population. It is most commonly diagnosed in late adolescence and early adulthood. All of the other statements are correct. 

Example Question #115 : Defining Abnormalities And Disorders

Which of these is not a symptom of schizophrenia?

Possible Answers:

Split personalities 

Waxy flexibility 

Flat affect 

Delusions 

Correct answer:

Split personalities 

Explanation:

Schizophrenics do not have split personalities. Instead, schizophrenia refers to a break from reality rather than a mental break within the patient. In other words, patients experience a split from their thinking processes and emotional responses, not within their personalities. This differentiates schizophrenia from dissociative identity disorder. On the other hand, the flat affect, waxy flexibility, delusions, and making up words are all symptoms of schizophrenia. 

Example Question #116 : Defining Abnormalities And Disorders

Seymour is walking across the freeway and screaming, "I am God! No one can bring me down. I know the government is planning a nuclear attack against Brazil!"

Based on this example, Seymour may be experiencing which of the following?

Possible Answers:

Borderline personality disorder

Delusions of grandeur

Depression

Mania

Hallucinations

Correct answer:

Delusions of grandeur

Explanation:

"Delusions of grandeur" is the correct answer. Delusions of grandeur are fixed, false beliefs that oneself is superior (e.g. in fame, wealth, omnipotence, power). While this is a form of hallucination, the most correct answer is delusions of grandeur.

Example Question #25 : Schizophrenia

Which of the following is not a common symptom of schizophrenia?

Possible Answers:

Social isolation

Hallucinations

Delusions

Disorganized behavior

Disorganized thought

Correct answer:

Social isolation

Explanation:

Although "social isolation" may occur in individuals with schizophrenia, the other answer choices are widely accepted symptoms of schizophrenia that are assessed by mental health practitioners when making a schizophrenia diagnosis. In other words, social isolation in and of itself is not indicative of schizophrenia. 

Example Question #24 : Schizophrenia

A 26-year-old woman, Ms. Johnson, comes into the office of a psychological professional office. She complains of hearing voices that are encouraging her to do "bad things" like shoplift at her favorite clothing store. Additionally, she has numerous false beliefs that are not grounded in reality. Specifically, she believes the government has implanted a tracking device under her skin while she was sleeping. Which of the following is the best diagnosis for Ms. Johnson?

Possible Answers:

Lethargy

Schizophrenia

Borderline personality disorder

Schizoid personality disorder

Post-traumatic stress disorder

Correct answer:

Schizophrenia

Explanation:

Ms. Johnson presents symptoms characterized by hallucinations and delusions—two hallmark symptoms of "schizophrenia." Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric illness in which people have trouble distinguishing fantasy from reality. Among women, schizophrenia typically begins in the late 20s.

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