ACT Science : How to find research summary in biology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for ACT Science

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Example Questions

Example Question #121 : How To Find Research Summary In Biology

Elena is conducting an experiment to determine the effect of a new drug, norzapam, that is meant to help diabetic patients produce insulin naturally. She has four test subjects, all with type 1 diabetes, and all of whom continued to take fast-acting insulin as needed but ceased taking long-acting insulin. Two patients received the drug and two received a placebo. Over a period of ten months Elena measured her patients’ insulin levels each day (measured in International Units) and averaged them for each month. She also asked each patient to walk for as long as they could after taking the drug before their blood sugar dropped too low to continue. Her results from the experiment are shown in the given tables.

Patient 1: Drug received

Patient 1 is a 45 year-old male who is overweight and leads a sedentary lifestyle.

Month

Insulin level (IU)

Length of Walk (min)

1

50

15

2

52

18

3

54

20

4

60

20

5

64

22

6

70

25

7

78

28

8

86

33

9

98

38

10

103

40

 

Patient 2: Drug received

Patient 2 is a 23 year-old female of healthy weight who leads an active lifestyle.

Month

Insulin level (IU)

Length of Walk (min)

1

50

30

2

55

38

3

59

42

4

68

47

5

75

55

6

83

60

7

90

68

8

97

70

9

105

72

10

112

75

 

Patient 3: No drug

Patient 3 is a 60 year-old female who is overweight and leads a moderately active lifestyle.

Month

Insulin level (IU)

Length of Walk (min)

1

50

25

2

51

25

3

53

28

4

51

25

5

53

28

6

55

30

7

53

28

8

65

33

9

51

25

10

50

25

 

Patient 4: No Drug

Patient 4 is a 28 year-old male of healthy weight who leads very active lifestyle.

Month

Insulin level (IU)

Length of Walk (min)

1

60

45

2

65

48

3

68

50

4

68

50

5

70

55

6

71

56

7

68

52

8

69

55

9

79

65

10

80

65

A fifth patient, patient 5 is added to the study. She is a 25 year-old female of health weight who leads an active lifestyle. What would her insulin levels likely have been?

Possible Answers:

High, like that of patient 2

Low, like that of patient 4

High, like that of patient 1

Low, like that of patient 3

Correct answer:

High, like that of patient 2

Explanation:

Note that the patient is young fit and active. There are two others like her, patients 2 and 4. Both have comparatively high insulin levels, though patient 2's remain low due to receiving the placebo. Therefore this new patient is most likely going to have insulin levels like patient 1, who is both fit as well as receives the drug. 

Example Question #122 : How To Find Research Summary In Biology

Researchers have recorded data in four different regions, Region A, Region B, Region C and Region D. In these regions, the researchers recorded the height, diameter and the approximate age of the tallest redwood. The researchers want to use this data to learn more amount redwoods and their respective regions.

Act 2

If each of the measured trees were located in a forest in their respective regions, which region has the oldest forest? 

Possible Answers:

Region C

Region B

Region A

Region D

Correct answer:

Region C

Explanation:

In the data given, the older the tree is the taller that the tree is. In other words there is a direct relationship between the height of the tree and its age. Since all of the trees measured are the tallest trees in their regions, it can be implied that the measured trees are the oldest tree in their respective regions. The oldest tree that was measured was in Region C and therefore Region C is the oldest forest. 

Example Question #123 : How To Find Research Summary In Biology

Two scientists are examining the fragmented skeletal remains of an unidentified person. To begin work on identification, they must start by determining several characteristics about the individual, including sex. When determining sex, a measurement index can be used. Measurements can be taken from various points on the skeleton, such as the scapula or the femur, which then correspond to documented averages for different sexes, which vary with ancestry. In this individual of Latin American ancestry, the scapular breadth has measured 22.0cm, which is the only true sex-determining measurement that can be taken from these remains. In their reference books, the scientists find that this measurement in Latin American females ranges from 18.0-22.0cm and 22.0-24.0cm for Latin American males. Both scientists make a case using other supporting evidence as to which sex this unidentified individual may be.

Scientist 1

Sex can be clearly defined through context clues. Items found with the body and the way the body was found can both be used to determine the sex of the individual in cases such as this which lack other sex-determining measurements. The remains were found with small tennis shoes (size 8), which would generally be indicative of a female. The bag found with the body contained waterlogged copies of several popular magazines, as well as a broken cell phone, nail clippers, and a tube of lip balm. These items are generally more associated with items commonly carried by and used by female individuals rather than males. Because of abundant context clues, this individual can be determined to be female despite ambiguous measurements. 

Scientist 2

Clues about the sex of the individual can come from multiple sources. Context clues, such as the items found with the body, can help. The small shoes and stereotypically female-associated objects found with the remains can give an indication that the person must likely have been female. Another way to help determine sex is through estimated overall stature of the person – men are generally larger and more robustly built than females of the same ancestry. A rough estimation of stature of this individual would indicate that they were about 5’10” tall and heavily muscled. While not impossible for a female, this is a build that is much more likely to belong to a male individual. Though the context clues seem to point toward a female, the stature of the individual strongly suggests male.

With which of the following statements would both scientists likely agree?

Possible Answers:

Multiple methods of determination should always be used.

Measurements might be wrong.

The size of shoes can be used to definitely determine the sex of a person.

Context clues can be useful in determining the sex of an individual.

Correct answer:

Context clues can be useful in determining the sex of an individual.

Explanation:

Both scientists make mention of the use of context clues in their theories of sex determination.

Example Question #124 : How To Find Research Summary In Biology

Two scientists are examining the fragmented skeletal remains of an unidentified person. To begin work on identification, they must start by determining several characteristics about the individual, including sex. When determining sex, a measurement index can be used. Measurements can be taken from various points on the skeleton, such as the scapula or the femur, which then correspond to documented averages for different sexes, which vary with ancestry. In this individual of Latin American ancestry, the scapular breadth has measured 22.0cm, which is the only true sex-determining measurement that can be taken from these remains. In their reference books, the scientists find that this measurement in Latin American females ranges from 18.0-22.0cm and 22.0-24.0cm for Latin American males. Both scientists make a case using other supporting evidence as to which sex this unidentified individual may be.

Scientist 1

Sex can be clearly defined through context clues. Items found with the body and the way the body was found can both be used to determine the sex of the individual in cases such as this which lack other sex-determining measurements. The remains were found with small tennis shoes (size 8), which would generally be indicative of a female. The bag found with the body contained waterlogged copies of several popular magazines, as well as a broken cell phone, nail clippers, and a tube of lip balm. These items are generally more associated with items commonly carried by and used by female individuals rather than males. Because of abundant context clues, this individual can be determined to be female despite ambiguous measurements. 

Scientist 2

Clues about the sex of the individual can come from multiple sources. Context clues, such as the items found with the body, can help. The small shoes and stereotypically female-associated objects found with the remains can give an indication that the person must likely have been female. Another way to help determine sex is through estimated overall stature of the person – men are generally larger and more robustly built than females of the same ancestry. A rough estimation of stature of this individual would indicate that they were about 5’10” tall and heavily muscled. While not impossible for a female, this is a build that is much more likely to belong to a male individual. Though the context clues seem to point toward a female, the stature of the individual strongly suggests male.

Scientist 1 claims that the items found with the body (small shoes, lip balm, magazines, nail clippers) are stereotypically female. If the body was found with stereotypically male items (a knife, rope, large shoes), how might Scientist 1's conclusion change?

Possible Answers:

Scientist 1 would conclude that the individual was female

Scientist would conclude that there was not enough evidence to determine the sex of the individual

Scientist 1 would conclude that there might have been a second individual

Scientist 1 would conclude that the individual was male

Correct answer:

Scientist 1 would conclude that the individual was male

Explanation:

Scientist 1 relies on the type of context clues to determine sex. If the items found with the body (context clues) were typically male items, then Scientist 1 would likely claim the individual to be male.

Example Question #125 : How To Find Research Summary In Biology

Two scientists are examining the fragmented skeletal remains of an unidentified person. To begin work on identification, they must start by determining several characteristics about the individual, including sex. When determining sex, a measurement index can be used. Measurements can be taken from various points on the skeleton, such as the scapula or the femur, which then correspond to documented averages for different sexes, which vary with ancestry. In this individual of Latin American ancestry, the scapular breadth has measured 22.0cm, which is the only true sex-determining measurement that can be taken from these remains. In their reference books, the scientists find that this measurement in Latin American females ranges from 18.0-22.0cm and 22.0-24.0cm for Latin American males. Both scientists make a case using other supporting evidence as to which sex this unidentified individual may be.

Scientist 1

Sex can be clearly defined through context clues. Items found with the body and the way the body was found can both be used to determine the sex of the individual in cases such as this which lack other sex-determining measurements. The remains were found with small tennis shoes (size 8), which would generally be indicative of a female. The bag found with the body contained waterlogged copies of several popular magazines, as well as a broken cell phone, nail clippers, and a tube of lip balm. These items are generally more associated with items commonly carried by and used by female individuals rather than males. Because of abundant context clues, this individual can be determined to be female despite ambiguous measurements. 

Scientist 2

Clues about the sex of the individual can come from multiple sources. Context clues, such as the items found with the body, can help. The small shoes and stereotypically female-associated objects found with the remains can give an indication that the person must likely have been female. Another way to help determine sex is through estimated overall stature of the person – men are generally larger and more robustly built than females of the same ancestry. A rough estimation of stature of this individual would indicate that they were about 5’10” tall and heavily muscled. While not impossible for a female, this is a build that is much more likely to belong to a male individual. Though the context clues seem to point toward a female, the stature of the individual strongly suggests male.

Based on the views of Scientist 1, if an individual was found with no objects, what might they conclude?

Possible Answers:

The individual is likely female

There is not enough evidence to determine sex based

Body measurements are very accurate and may be used to determine sex

The individual is likely male

Correct answer:

There is not enough evidence to determine sex based

Explanation:

Scientist 1 relies mainly on context clues to determine sex, so if there were no context clues, they would not be able to determine the sex of the individual.

Example Question #126 : How To Find Research Summary In Biology

Two scientists are examining the fragmented skeletal remains of an unidentified person. To begin work on identification, they must start by determining several characteristics about the individual, including sex. When determining sex, a measurement index can be used. Measurements can be taken from various points on the skeleton, such as the scapula or the femur, which then correspond to documented averages for different sexes, which vary with ancestry. In this individual of Latin American ancestry, the scapular breadth has measured 22.0cm, which is the only true sex-determining measurement that can be taken from these remains. In their reference books, the scientists find that this measurement in Latin American females ranges from 18.0-22.0cm and 22.0-24.0cm for Latin American males. Both scientists make a case using other supporting evidence as to which sex this unidentified individual may be.

Scientist 1

Sex can be clearly defined through context clues. Items found with the body and the way the body was found can both be used to determine the sex of the individual in cases such as this which lack other sex-determining measurements. The remains were found with small tennis shoes (size 8), which would generally be indicative of a female. The bag found with the body contained waterlogged copies of several popular magazines, as well as a broken cell phone, nail clippers, and a tube of lip balm. These items are generally more associated with items commonly carried by and used by female individuals rather than males. Because of abundant context clues, this individual can be determined to be female despite ambiguous measurements. 

Scientist 2

Clues about the sex of the individual can come from multiple sources. Context clues, such as the items found with the body, can help. The small shoes and stereotypically female-associated objects found with the remains can give an indication that the person must likely have been female. Another way to help determine sex is through estimated overall stature of the person – men are generally larger and more robustly built than females of the same ancestry. A rough estimation of stature of this individual would indicate that they were about 5’10” tall and heavily muscled. While not impossible for a female, this is a build that is much more likely to belong to a male individual. Though the context clues seem to point toward a female, the stature of the individual strongly suggests male.

What other evidence might Scientist 2 look for to best support his/her claim?

Possible Answers:

Historical cases of female Asian individuals

Historical cases of Latin American male individuals

Research on Latin American ancestry

Information about the town where the individual was found

Correct answer:

Historical cases of Latin American male individuals

Explanation:

Historical cases would be useful to compare this new but similar case to. The other information is not be relevant and would not support Scientist 2's claim.

Example Question #127 : How To Find Research Summary In Biology

Two scientists are examining the fragmented skeletal remains of an unidentified person. To begin work on identification, they must start by determining several characteristics about the individual, including sex. When determining sex, a measurement index can be used. Measurements can be taken from various points on the skeleton, such as the scapula or the femur, which then correspond to documented averages for different sexes, which vary with ancestry. In this individual of Latin American ancestry, the scapular breadth has measured 22.0cm, which is the only true sex-determining measurement that can be taken from these remains. In their reference books, the scientists find that this measurement in Latin American females ranges from 18.0-22.0cm and 22.0-24.0cm for Latin American males. Both scientists make a case using other supporting evidence as to which sex this unidentified individual may be.

Scientist 1

Sex can be clearly defined through context clues. Items found with the body and the way the body was found can both be used to determine the sex of the individual in cases such as this which lack other sex-determining measurements. The remains were found with small tennis shoes (size 8), which would generally be indicative of a female. The bag found with the body contained waterlogged copies of several popular magazines, as well as a broken cell phone, nail clippers, and a tube of lip balm. These items are generally more associated with items commonly carried by and used by female individuals rather than males. Because of abundant context clues, this individual can be determined to be female despite ambiguous measurements. 

Scientist 2

Clues about the sex of the individual can come from multiple sources. Context clues, such as the items found with the body, can help. The small shoes and stereotypically female-associated objects found with the remains can give an indication that the person must likely have been female. Another way to help determine sex is through estimated overall stature of the person – men are generally larger and more robustly built than females of the same ancestry. A rough estimation of stature of this individual would indicate that they were about 5’10” tall and heavily muscled. While not impossible for a female, this is a build that is much more likely to belong to a male individual. Though the context clues seem to point toward a female, the stature of the individual strongly suggests male.

How might Scientist 2 respond to Scientist 1’s methods?

Possible Answers:

Scientist 2 would agree with Scientist 1’s methods

Scientist 2 would say that Scientist 1 needs more evidence than just one method can provide

Scientist 2 would say that Scientist 1 needs more information about Latin American religious practices

Scientist 2 would say that Scientist 1 needs more information about shoes

Correct answer:

Scientist 2 would say that Scientist 1 needs more evidence than just one method can provide

Explanation:

While the other objections might also be made, the fact that Scientist 1 only uses one source of proof would likely bother Scientist 2 (who uses multiple methods) the most.

Example Question #261 : Act Science

Two scientists are examining the fragmented skeletal remains of an unidentified person. To begin work on identification, they must start by determining several characteristics about the individual, including sex. When determining sex, a measurement index can be used. Measurements can be taken from various points on the skeleton, such as the scapula or the femur, which then correspond to documented averages for different sexes, which vary with ancestry. In this individual of Latin American ancestry, the scapular breadth has measured 22.0cm, which is the only true sex-determining measurement that can be taken from these remains. In their reference books, the scientists find that this measurement in Latin American females ranges from 18.0-22.0cm and 22.0-24.0cm for Latin American males. Both scientists make a case using other supporting evidence as to which sex this unidentified individual may be.

Scientist 1

Sex can be clearly defined through context clues. Items found with the body and the way the body was found can both be used to determine the sex of the individual in cases such as this which lack other sex-determining measurements. The remains were found with small tennis shoes (size 8), which would generally be indicative of a female. The bag found with the body contained waterlogged copies of several popular magazines, as well as a broken cell phone, nail clippers, and a tube of lip balm. These items are generally more associated with items commonly carried by and used by female individuals rather than males. Because of abundant context clues, this individual can be determined to be female despite ambiguous measurements. 

Scientist 2

Clues about the sex of the individual can come from multiple sources. Context clues, such as the items found with the body, can help. The small shoes and stereotypically female-associated objects found with the remains can give an indication that the person must likely have been female. Another way to help determine sex is through estimated overall stature of the person – men are generally larger and more robustly built than females of the same ancestry. A rough estimation of stature of this individual would indicate that they were about 5’10” tall and heavily muscled. While not impossible for a female, this is a build that is much more likely to belong to a male individual. Though the context clues seem to point toward a female, the stature of the individual strongly suggests male.

If the scapular breadth was 23.0cm instead of 22.0cm, how might Scientist 1 respond?

Possible Answers:

They would use another method of determining sex in combination with context clues to check their answer

They would no longer believe that context clues matter

They would not change their answer

They would disagree with Scientist 2

Correct answer:

They would use another method of determining sex in combination with context clues to check their answer

Explanation:

Because the measurement is more similar to males according to the given information in the problem, Scientist 1 would likely find something else to use as proof since the context clues indicate female instead of male.

Example Question #129 : How To Find Research Summary In Biology

Two scientists are examining the fragmented skeletal remains of an unidentified person. To begin work on identification, they must start by determining several characteristics about the individual, including sex. When determining sex, a measurement index can be used. Measurements can be taken from various points on the skeleton, such as the scapula or the femur, which then correspond to documented averages for different sexes, which vary with ancestry. In this individual of Latin American ancestry, the scapular breadth has measured 22.0cm, which is the only true sex-determining measurement that can be taken from these remains. In their reference books, the scientists find that this measurement in Latin American females ranges from 18.0-22.0cm and 22.0-24.0cm for Latin American males. Both scientists make a case using other supporting evidence as to which sex this unidentified individual may be.

Scientist 1

Sex can be clearly defined through context clues. Items found with the body and the way the body was found can both be used to determine the sex of the individual in cases such as this which lack other sex-determining measurements. The remains were found with small tennis shoes (size 8), which would generally be indicative of a female. The bag found with the body contained waterlogged copies of several popular magazines, as well as a broken cell phone, nail clippers, and a tube of lip balm. These items are generally more associated with items commonly carried by and used by female individuals rather than males. Because of abundant context clues, this individual can be determined to be female despite ambiguous measurements. 

Scientist 2

Clues about the sex of the individual can come from multiple sources. Context clues, such as the items found with the body, can help. The small shoes and stereotypically female-associated objects found with the remains can give an indication that the person must likely have been female. Another way to help determine sex is through estimated overall stature of the person – men are generally larger and more robustly built than females of the same ancestry. A rough estimation of stature of this individual would indicate that they were about 5’10” tall and heavily muscled. While not impossible for a female, this is a build that is much more likely to belong to a male individual. Though the context clues seem to point toward a female, the stature of the individual strongly suggests male.

Suppose the individual was eventually identified and proven to be female. Which methods would have proven most useful?

Possible Answers:

Ancestry

Measurements

Context clues

Height

Correct answer:

Context clues

Explanation:

Because the context clues pointed to the individual being a female and the rest of the information was ambiguous, the context clues were the most important.

Example Question #130 : How To Find Research Summary In Biology

Two scientists are examining the fragmented skeletal remains of an unidentified person. To begin work on identification, they must start by determining several characteristics about the individual, including sex. When determining sex, a measurement index can be used. Measurements can be taken from various points on the skeleton, such as the scapula or the femur, which then correspond to documented averages for different sexes, which vary with ancestry. In this individual of Latin American ancestry, the scapular breadth has measured 22.0cm, which is the only true sex-determining measurement that can be taken from these remains. In their reference books, the scientists find that this measurement in Latin American females ranges from 18.0-22.0cm and 22.0-24.0cm for Latin American males. Both scientists make a case using other supporting evidence as to which sex this unidentified individual may be.

Scientist 1

Sex can be clearly defined through context clues. Items found with the body and the way the body was found can both be used to determine the sex of the individual in cases such as this which lack other sex-determining measurements. The remains were found with small tennis shoes (size 8), which would generally be indicative of a female. The bag found with the body contained waterlogged copies of several popular magazines, as well as a broken cell phone, nail clippers, and a tube of lip balm. These items are generally more associated with items commonly carried by and used by female individuals rather than males. Because of abundant context clues, this individual can be determined to be female despite ambiguous measurements. 

Scientist 2

Clues about the sex of the individual can come from multiple sources. Context clues, such as the items found with the body, can help. The small shoes and stereotypically female-associated objects found with the remains can give an indication that the person must likely have been female. Another way to help determine sex is through estimated overall stature of the person – men are generally larger and more robustly built than females of the same ancestry. A rough estimation of stature of this individual would indicate that they were about 5’10” tall and heavily muscled. While not impossible for a female, this is a build that is much more likely to belong to a male individual. Though the context clues seem to point toward a female, the stature of the individual strongly suggests male.

Which scientist had the stronger given argument?

Possible Answers:

Scientist 2, because he/she used ancestry and measurements.

Neither, the two arguments are equal.

Scientist 1, because he/she used context clues.

Scientist 2, because he/she used multiple kinds of evidence to prove their point.

Correct answer:

Scientist 2, because he/she used multiple kinds of evidence to prove their point.

Explanation:

Because multiple sources of proof strengthen an argument, Scientist 2 had the best argument.

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