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Example Question #1 : Reading Comprehension
Passage adapted from John Dewey's "The Need for a Recovery of Philosophy" (1915)
Intellectual advance occurs in two ways. At times increase of knowledge is organized about old conceptions, while these are expanded, elaborated and refined, but not seriously revised, much less abandoned. At other times, the increase of knowledge demands qualitative rather than quantitative change; alteration, not addition. Men's minds grow cold to their former intellectual concerns; ideas that were burning fade; interests that were urgent seem remote. Men face in another direction; their older perplexities are unreal; considerations passed over as negligible loom up. Former problems may not have been solved, but they no longer press for solutions.
Philosophy is no exception to the rule. But it is unusually conservative--not, necessarily, in proffering solutions, but in clinging to problems. It has been so allied with theology and theological morals as representatives of men's chief interests, that radical alteration has been shocking. Men's activities took a decidedly new turn, for example, in the seventeenth century, and it seems as if philosophy, under the lead of thinkers like Bacon and Descartes, was to execute an about-face. But, in spite of the ferment, it turned out that many of the older problems were but translated from Latin into the vernacular or into the new terminology furnished by science.
The association of philosophy with academic teaching has reinforced this intrinsic conservatism. Scholastic philosophy persisted in universities after men's thoughts outside of the walls of colleges had moved in other directions. In the last hundred years intellectual advances of science and politics have in like fashion been crystallized into material of instruction and now resist further change. I would not say that the spirit of teaching is hostile to that of liberal inquiry, but a philosophy which exists largely as something to be taught rather than wholly as something to be reflected upon is conducive to discussion of views held by others rather than to immediate response. Philosophy when taught inevitably magnifies the history of past thought, and leads professional philosophers to approach their subject-matter through its formulation in received systems. It tends, also, to emphasize points upon which men have divided into schools, for these lend themselves to retrospective definition and elaboration. Consequently, philosophical discussion is likely to be a dressing out of antithetical traditions, where criticism of one view is thought to afford proof of the truth of its opposite (as if formulation of views guaranteed logical exclusives). Direct preoccupation with contemporary difficulties is left to literature and politics.
Which of the following could be an additional explanation that Dewey could cogently claim for his main point?
A. Philosophy is conservative because the human mind asks the same basic questions in all periods of history.
B. Philosophy is conservative because new ideas are merely copies of older ones.
C. Philosophy is conservative because people are not always aware of the novelty of their current social and historical conditions.
A and C
A and B
We certainly should not choose option B. Dewey clearly does not stand for this conception of human thought at the end of the second paragraph. In that place, he is saying that there was indeed a change of mind in the seventeenth century. It just happened that many ideas were merely translated from one way of speaking to another—without radically reordering the structure of ideas in line with the changes that did take place on some level. This is a contingent fact, not necessarily something being claimed about philsophy as a whole (or essentially).
Likewise, there is nothing in the passage that can make us believe that A is correct. Dewey is stressing that at certain times, things qualitatively change in the human outlook.
At the end of the first paragraph, it is obvious that Dewey thinks that there are time when people do experience major changes in perspective, having new concerns. If people do not notice this fact, they may well not realize that there are new philosophical questions to be asked. This would lead to a kind of conservatism like that discussed elsewhere in the selection.