NCLEX : Ethical Responsibilities

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for NCLEX

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Ethical Responsibilities

Which of the following describes the professional role of the nurse in a healthcare setting?

Possible Answers:

Caregiver

Assessment

All of these

Patient advocate

Correct answer:

All of these

Explanation:

All of these are important professional roles of the nurse in a healthcare setting.

Example Question #2 : Ethical Responsibilities

You are a new nurse taking care of a patient with congestive heart failure. You see an order to administer 500 mL of 0.9% normal saline over 6 hours. Later on in your shift, you realize that you mistakenly administered 2000 mL of 0.9% normal saline over 2 hours, and now the patient is slightly short of breath. Which of the following is the most appropriate next step?

Possible Answers:

Do not tell anyone of the error since the patient is stable

Immediately administer furosemide to diurese the patient

Immediately inform the covering physician

Immediately contact your hospital's safety oversight committee 

Ask your co-nurses whether or not to inform the covering physician

Correct answer:

Immediately inform the covering physician

Explanation:

The correct answer is "immediately inform the covering physician." This is the correct choice because in this case, a medical error was committed, and the most appropriate immediate course of action is to let the patient's covering physician know, so that they can determine what effect this may have on the patient, assess the patient, and determine what, if any, immediate intervention needs to be performed to ensure that the adverse effect on the patient is minimized. 

While it is possible in this case, given that the patient has congestive heart failure, and that they may have been fluid overloaded by the administration of excess fluids, that they will need to be diuresed with furosemide, this medication cannot be administered without the order of the covering physician, and it would be inappropriate to administer furosemide without their orders. 

While your hospital's safety oversight committee may ultimately need to be informed of this incident, the most immediate priority is patient safety, and as such, the patient's physician should be notified of the medical error before anyone else so that they can best manage any immediate consequences of the error. 

It would be highly inappropriate to not inform anyone of the error, as an unintended dose of IV fluids was administered and this can be dangerous in a patient with congestive heart failure. Any delay, whether due to not telling anyone, or to conferring with co-nurses, in informing the supervising physician would be inappropriate and potentially dangerous to the patient.

Example Question #1 : Legal Responsibilities And Patient Rights

Which of the following nursing roles are eligible for prescriptive rights?

Possible Answers:

Registered nurse

Critical care nurse

Charge nurse

Nurse practitioner

Correct answer:

Nurse practitioner

Explanation:

Of the nursing types listed, only nurse practitioners are can be authorized to write prescriptions for pharmaceutical drugs.

Example Question #4 : Ethical Responsibilities

Communicating patient values, preferences and expressed needs to other members of health care team is an example of what Quality and Safety in the Education of Nurses (QSEN) competency?

Possible Answers:

Quality improvement

Safety

Patient-centered care

Evidence-based practice

Correct answer:

Patient-centered care

Explanation:

Communicating patient values, preferences and expressed needs to other members of health care team is an example of patient-centered care, which is defined as the act of recognizing the full agency of the patient by providing compassionate and coordinated care based on respect for patient preferences, values, and needs.

Example Question #5 : Ethical Responsibilities

Using tools such as algorithm flow charts and cause-effect analyses to make processes of care more explicit is an example of what Quality and Safety in the Education of Nurses (QSEN) competency?

Possible Answers:

Safety

Evidence-based practice

Quality improvement

Patient centered care

Correct answer:

Quality improvement

Explanation:

Using tools such as algorithm flow charts and cause-effect analyses to make processes of care more explicit is an example of quality improvement, which is defined as the use of data to monitor the outcomes of treatment practices and other efforts to continuously improve the quality and safety of health care systems.

Example Question #6 : Ethical Responsibilities

Asking for help from a co-worker or superior is an example of what Quality and Safety in the Education of Nurses (QSEN) competency?

Possible Answers:

Evidence-based practice

Safety

Informatics

Teamwork and collaboration

Correct answer:

Teamwork and collaboration

Explanation:

Asking for help from a co-worker or superior is an example of teamwork and collaboration, which is defined as the ability to function effectively within nursing or integrated teams. Skills should include the ability to have open, mutually respectful communication, shared decision making, and a focus on patient care. 

Example Question #7 : Ethical Responsibilities

Using a checklist for tasks when doing an in-home visit is an example of what Quality and Safety in the Education of Nurses (QSEN) competency?

Possible Answers:

Evidence-based practice 

Informatics

Teamwork and collaboration

Safety

Correct answer:

Safety

Explanation:

Using a checklist for tasks when doing an in-home visit is an example of saftey, which is defined as employment of practices that minimize the risk of harm to patients and providers both by individual performance and the use of systems (such as checklists) to avoid errors.

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