NCLEX : Causes and Treatments of OB/GYN Conditions

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for NCLEX

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Example Questions

Example Question #51 : Obstetrics And Gynecological Conditions

Sudden onset of severe abdominal pain with a unilateral adnexal mass would most likely be which of the following conditions?

Possible Answers:

Polycystic ovarian syndrome

Ovarian torsion

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Teratoma

Correct answer:

Ovarian torsion

Explanation:

While any of the conditions listed can cause abdominal or pelvic pain, the most likely cause of severe pain of sudden onset is ovarian torsion. This is an emergency condition which can result in loss of the affected ovary if not treated within four hours. 

Example Question #51 : Obstetrics And Gynecological Conditions

Clear-cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina is strongly linked to pre-birth exposure to what medication?

Possible Answers:

Acetaminophen 

Clomiphene

Diethylstilbestrol (DES)

Thalidomide

Correct answer:

Diethylstilbestrol (DES)

Explanation:

Diethylstilbestrol (DES), a medication used from 1940 to 1971 to reduce the risk of miscarriage, resulted in the later development of clear-cell adenocarcinoma in many of the unborn children of these pregnancies. 

Example Question #51 : Obstetrics And Gynecological Conditions

A patient enters the labor and delivery unit. She is having a singleton birth and the baby is showing minimal variability on the fetal monitor. Interventions may include all but __________.

Possible Answers:

placing the patient flat on her back

suggesting that the patient walk with a portable monitor

giving the patient a 500mL IV fluid bolus

placing the patient on a non-rebreather mask

contacting the provider

Correct answer:

placing the patient flat on her back

Explanation:

Increasing fluid and oxygen administration may increase the overall oxygenation of the fetus and result in greater variability in heart rate. It is advisable to change the position of the patient, however, a supine position is not compatible with pregnancy. Contacting the provider is an acceptable intervention given concern for fetal well-being.

Example Question #52 : Obstetrics And Gynecological Conditions

What is the most common cause of mucopurulent cervicitis? 

Possible Answers:

Human papillomavirus

Chlamydia trachomatis

Herpes simplex virus

Neisseria gonorrhea

Correct answer:

Chlamydia trachomatis

Explanation:

The most common cause of mucopurulent cervicitis is chlamydia trachomatis, followed by neisseria gonorrhea. Human papillomavirus, while it is associated with increased risk of development of cervical cancer, does not cause mucopurulent cervicitis, nor does herpes simplex.

Example Question #51 : Obstetrics And Gynecological Conditions

Which of the following conditions can result in temporary masculinization of a pregnant woman which resolves after delivery?

Possible Answers:

Growth hormone deficieny

Placental aromatase deficiency

Polycystic ovarian syndrome

Chloasma

Correct answer:

Placental aromatase deficiency

Explanation:

Placental aromatase deficiency is a condition that prevents testosterone from being aromatized into estrogen during pregnancy. This results in a temporary masculinization of the mother that does not continue past delivery. Neither chloasma nor growth hormone deficiency result in masculinization, and masculinizing symptoms of polycystic ovarian syndrome often improve during pregnancy, rather than getting worse. 

Example Question #11 : Causes And Treatments Of Ob/Gyn Conditions

Which of the following conditions presents as vulvar pruritus and pain with porcelain-white vaginovulvular atrophy?

Possible Answers:

Contact vulvitis

Bacterial vaginosis

Herpes simplex

Lichen sclerosus

Correct answer:

Lichen sclerosus

Explanation:

Lichen sclerosus is a condition that presents as vulvar pruritus and pain with porcelain-white vaginovulvular atrophy. It is most common in post-menopausal women, though it does occur on occasion in younger women and girls. While all of the other conditions listed can cause puritis and pain, none of them are associated with frank atrophy.   

Example Question #54 : Obstetrics And Gynecological Conditions

All of the following are part of the Amsel criteria for bacterial vaginosis except __________.

Possible Answers:

Thin gray or white vaginal discharge

All of there are part of the Amsel criteria for bacterial vaginosis

Vaginal pH > 4.5 

A positive "whiff" test on addition of potassium hydroxide to the vaginal discharge

Correct answer:

All of there are part of the Amsel criteria for bacterial vaginosis

Explanation:

The Amsel criteria for bacterial vaginosis are as follows: clue cells seen on microscopic examination, a positive "whiff" test on addition of potassium hydroxide to the vaginal discharge, a vaginal pH > 4.5, and thin gray or white vaginal discharge.

Example Question #61 : Obstetrics And Gynecological Conditions

Which of the following is not a risk-factor for uterine leiomyoma?

Possible Answers:

Smoking

Family history

Red meat consumption

Obesity

Correct answer:

Smoking

Explanation:

The main risk factors for uterine leiomyoma are family history, obesity, and red meat consumption. Smoking is not a risk factor.

Example Question #61 : Obstetrics And Gynecological Conditions

Up to 90% of cases of pelvic inflammatory disease have what etiology?

Possible Answers:

Human papillomavirus only

Neisseria gonorrhoeae only

Chlamydia trachomatis only

Neisseria gonorrhoeae and chlamydia trachomatis

Correct answer:

Neisseria gonorrhoeae and chlamydia trachomatis

Explanation:

75 to 90% of cases of pelvic inflammatory disease are caused by neisseria gonorrhoeae and/or chlamydia trachomatis infections. This condition, typified by adhesion formation in the uterus and fallopian tubes, can result in serious issues such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, or reproductive cancer. 

Example Question #12 : Causes And Treatments Of Ob/Gyn Conditions

Which of the following is part of the diagnostic criteria for pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)?

Possible Answers:

All of these

Fever

Elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)

Leukocytosis

Correct answer:

All of these

Explanation:

The criteria for diagnosis of PID are as follows: fever, cervical motion tenderness, abdominal pain, leukocytosis, elevated ESR, and purulent cervical discharge.

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