NCLEX : Antimicrobial Pharmacology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for NCLEX

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Example Questions

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Example Question #47 : Drug Identification

Each of the following antibiotics works by inhibition of the 50S subunit of bacterial ribosomes except __________.

Possible Answers:

streptogramin

macrolides

tetracyclines

clindamycin

Correct answer:

tetracyclines

Explanation:

Macrolides, streptogramins, and clindamycin all work by inhibition of the 50S subunit of bacterial ribosomes. Tetracyclines have a similar mechanism of action, but instead affect the 30S unit of bacterial ribosomes.

Example Question #133 : Pharmacology

Polymyxin antibiotics target what part of the bacterial cellular anatomy?

Possible Answers:

Cell wall

Nucleic acids

Ribosomes

Cell membrane

Correct answer:

Cell membrane

Explanation:

Polymyxin antibiotics function by interfering with phospholipid function in bacterial cell membranes. After binding to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the outer membrane, polymyxins' hydrophobic tail causes damage to both the inner and outer membranes of Gram-negative bacteria.

Example Question #134 : Pharmacology

What is the mechanism of action of amoxicillin?

Possible Answers:

Interference with the 30S subunit of bacterial ribosomes

Inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis

Suppression of folate synthesis 

Interference with the 50S subunit of bacterial ribosomes

Correct answer:

Inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis

Explanation:

Amoxicillin inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by interfering with the formation of cross-links between peptidoglycan polymer chains. 

Example Question #135 : Pharmacology

Which of the following class of antibiotics is associated with ototoxicity and hearing loss?

Possible Answers:

Aminoglycosides

Beta-lactam antibiotics

Glycopeptides

Quinolones

Correct answer:

Aminoglycosides

Explanation:

Aminoglycoside antibiotics such as streptomycin and gentamicin have been associated with vestibular toxicity and hearing loss. Aminoglycosides remain in inner ear fluids longer than serum and can have a latent ototoxic effect, causing hearing loss even after the antibiotic has been discontinued. None of the other antibiotics listed are associated with ototoxicity.

Example Question #136 : Pharmacology

Ciprofloxacin belongs to what class of antibiotic?

Possible Answers:

 Fluoroquinolones

Tetracyclines

Beta lactams

Macrolides 

Correct answer:

 Fluoroquinolones

Explanation:

Ciprofloxacin belongs to the fluoroquinolone class of antibiotics. Other antibiotics in this class include norfloxacin, levofloxacin, and nadifloxacin.

Example Question #1 : Antimicrobial Pharmacology

What is rifampin's mechanism of action?

Possible Answers:

Inhibition of DNA gyrase

Inhibition of the 30S subunit of bacterial ribosomes

Inhibition of RNA polymerase

Disruption of cell membranes

Correct answer:

Inhibition of RNA polymerase

Explanation:

Rifampin inhibits bacterial RNA synthesis by inhibiting RNA polymerase. This prevents the transcription of proteins within the bacterial cell, leading to cell death.

Example Question #2 : Antimicrobial Pharmacology

What is the most serious potential adverse effect of rifampin use?

Possible Answers:

Seizures

Gastric ulceration or bleeding

Nephrotoxicity

Liver failure

Correct answer:

Liver failure

Explanation:

Hepatotoxicity and potential liver failure are the most serious potential adverse effects of rifampin use. Patients on this medication must establish baseline liver function tests and be monitored for liver damage. None of the other conditions listed are associated with rifampin use.

Example Question #3 : Antimicrobial Pharmacology

Aminoglycosides are primarily used for infections by what type of pathogen?

Possible Answers:

Yeast and fungi

Gram positive bacteria only

Gram negative bacteria only

Both Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria

Correct answer:

Gram negative bacteria only

Explanation:

Aminoglycoside antibiotics are used to treat Gram negative bacteria. They have not been shown to be effective against Gram positive bacteria and are not antifungal. Recall the major difference between the Gram negative and positive bacteria are their cell wall composition; Gram negative have a small proportion of peptidoglycan and a high proportion of lipopolysaccharide, while Gram negative bacteria have a large proportion of peptidoglycan. 

Example Question #143 : Nclex

Which of the following is an example of an aminoglycoside antibiotic?

Possible Answers:

Streptomycin

Erythromycin

Azithromycin

Clindamycin

Correct answer:

Streptomycin

Explanation:

The only aminoglycoside antibiotic among those listed is streptomycin. Other examples of aminoglycosides include tobramycin and gentamicin. All aminoglycosides either end in -mycin or -micin. However, this suffix is not exclusive to aminoglycosides. It is also seen in the macrolides: erythromycin and azithromycin and both macrolides, and in lincosamides such as clindamycin.

Example Question #144 : Nclex

Fluoroquinolones such as ciprofloxacin may cause which of the following serious side effects?

Possible Answers:

Liver failure

Sudden tendon rupture

All of these

Seizures

Irreversible peripheral neuropathy

Correct answer:

All of these

Explanation:

Fluoroquinolones (the most commonly prescribed of which is ciprofloxacin) carry a risk of all of the following adverse effects: sudden tendon rupture or tendonitis, hepatotoxicity or liver failure, seizures, and permanent peripheral neuropathy. Other adverse effects include Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea, bone marrow suppression, Steven-Johnson's Syndrome, tremors, and psychosis. The majority of these adverse effects are seen in higher numbers in children and the elderly.

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