High School Biology : Reproductive System

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for High School Biology

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Reproductive System

What is the structure responsible for the storage of sperm in the male reproductive system?

Possible Answers:

Prostate

Epididymis

Urethra

Vas deferens

Correct answer:

Epididymis

Explanation:

The epididymis is responsible for storing sperm in order for it to mature. Upon ejaculation, it will be propelled into the vas deferens and out of the urethral opening. 

Example Question #1 : Reproductive System

Which female organ is responsible for producing eggs?

Possible Answers:

Fallopian tube

Ovary

Spleen

Uterus

Correct answer:

Ovary

Explanation:

Eggs, or oocytes, are produced in the ovaries. During ovulation, the egg is released from the ovary into the fallopian tube. If fertilized, the egg transitions into a zygote and is implanted into the uterus for gestation and development.

The spleen is involved in filtering the blood and lymph, and is not involved in reproduction.

Example Question #1 : Reproductive System

What is the structure that carries eggs from the ovary to the uterus?

Possible Answers:

Uterine tube

Vaginal tube

Fallopian tube

Fimbriae

Cervical tube

Correct answer:

Fallopian tube

Explanation:

The ovaries release eggs into the fallopian tubes, which carry the egg to the uterus.

Fimbriae are protrusions from the fallopian tube that receive the egg from the ovary before transferring it to the fallopian tube itself. The uterus houses the endometrium and, if fertilization occurs, the developing embryo. The cervix is the structure that separates the uterus from the vaginal canal.

An ectopic pregnancy occurs when the egg gets implanted into the fallopian tube rather than the uterus. This is painful, and leads to surgical procedures in order to protect the mother.

Example Question #4 : Reproductive System

Which reproductive organ is divided into three regions: fundus, body, and cervix?

Possible Answers:

Uterus

Vagina

Ovary

Epididymis

Fallopian tube

Correct answer:

Uterus

Explanation:

The uterus is a muscular organ in the pelvic cavity. It is also called the womb. The uterus is divided into three regions: the upper region (the fundus), the midportion (the body), and the cervix. The ovaries are almond-shaped organs located in the pelvic cavity. The fallopian tubes connects the ovaries and the uterus. A fallopian tube is divided into three sections: the infundibulum, the ampulla, and isthmus. The vagina, or birth canal, is a muscular tube connecting the cervix to the vulva. The epididymis is a twisted tube that is located on and beside a testis.

Example Question #5 : Reproductive System

Which reproductive organ is located around the urethra, anterior to the rectum, and inferior to the bladder?

Possible Answers:

Epididymis

Vas deferans

Prostate

Uterus

Ovary

Correct answer:

Prostate

Explanation:

The prostate gland is located immediately below the bladder and anterior to the rectum, and it surrounds the urethra. The gland secretes a fluid that becomes part of the seminal fluid. The epididymis rests on and beside the posterior surface of a testis. It is the first part of the secretory duct of each testis. The vas deferans is a continuation of the epididymis and transports sperm from each testis to the ejaculatory duct, which empties into the prostatic urethra. The ovaries are part of the female reproductive system and located in the pelvic cavity attached to the uterus. The ovaries produce the female reproductive cell, the ovum, and hormones. The uterus is located in the pelvis between the sacrum and pubic symphysis. The uterus contains and nourishes the embryo and fetus.

Example Question #6 : Reproductive System

At what age does a female's ovary have the most eggs she will ever have in her lifetime?

Possible Answers:

At menopause

At birth

In adolescence, at the start of puberty

In the reproductive years: ages 20-30

During childhood

Correct answer:

At birth

Explanation:

The ovaries contain 1-2 million eggs at birth. This number slowly declines throughout the female's life. The quality of eggs remaining after age 35 is low, whereby years of spontaneous mutation have occurred. 

Example Question #1 : Reproductive System

Which of the following is not a means of asexual reproduction?

Possible Answers:

Generation of spores

Fission

Fertilization

Vegetative propagation

Budding

Correct answer:

Fertilization

Explanation:

Fertilization occurs when the genetic material from a sperm and egg combine to form a zygote. This is a form of sexual reproduction because it required the genetic information from two sources to combine, and then form another individual. The new offspring will have genetic material from both parents, making it genetically different from either individual parent.

Asexual reproduction occurs when the offspring come from a single parent and only have the genes from a single parent. Fission typically occurs in bacterial reproduction when a single organism splits into two; each of these pieces of the original organism forms a separate organism with the same genetic material as the parent. Budding occurs when a new organism is formed from a bud off of the original organism. When the process is completed, two separate organisms can survive on their own. Sporogenesis usually happens in plant and fungal species, and occurs when the parent organism forms spores which later develop into mature organisms. Vegetative propagation occurs when a piece of a "parent" plant is cultivated and develops into a new organism. This can be done by scientists and horticulturalists or it can occur naturally. None of these processes require more than a single organism to create offspring, and each offspring will be genetically identical to the parent.

Example Question #3 : Reproductive System

The luteal surge results in which key event in the female reproductive system?

Possible Answers:

Fertilization

Ovulation

Menstruation

Capacitation

Correct answer:

Ovulation

Explanation:

As estrogen increases in the female body, it can cause a spike of luteinizing hormone (LH) resulting in a temporary positive feedback loop (the luteal surge). This spike in estrogen and LH levels causes the follicle to burst, releasing the egg into the fallopian tube. This event is called ovulation.

Example Question #1 : Reproductive System

Which gland creates a milky, alkaline solution, which helps sperm survive in the acidic envorionment of the female reproductive tract? 

Possible Answers:

Adrenal glands

Prostate gland

Bulbourtheral glands

Thyroid gland

Thymus gland

Correct answer:

Prostate gland

Explanation:

The bulbourethral glands aid in the process of ejaculation by lubricating the urethra. The thyroid, thymus and adrenal glands are not parts of the reproductive system. The thyroid gland secretes thyroid hormones which controls the body's metabolism and homeostasis. The thymus gland is responsible for secreting thymosine, which facilitates the maturation of T cells of the immune system. The adrenal glands are responsible for regulation of many body processes including the stress response, fluid and electrolyte balance, sex hormone production, blood glucose levels, and the fight, flight and fight response.

Example Question #10 : Reproductive System

Which of the following hormones is secreted by the ovaries and is responsible for the development of secondary sex characteristics in females?

Possible Answers:

Testosterone

Corpus luteum

Luteinizing hormone

Follicle-stimulating hormone

Estrogen

Correct answer:

Estrogen

Explanation:

Females' ovaries secrete estrogen, testosterone, and progesterone. Estrogen has many functions, including development of female secondary sex characteristics. Such charactersistics include, but are not limited to: development of breast tissue, redistribution of body fat to the hips, thighs, buttocks, and breasts, and initiation of menses. In females, testosterone functions primarily to increase sexual arousal. Progesterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone play roles in the menstrual cycle. The corpus luteum is formed from the follicle and remains in the ovary after the egg has been released. It secretes progesterone for about two weeks, then deteriorates in the absence of a pregnancy.

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