High School Biology : Cell Structures and Organelles

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for High School Biology

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Example Questions

Example Question #2 : Understanding Prokaryotic Cell Differences

A fungus is a member of which group?

Possible Answers:

None of these

Eukaryote

Protist

Prokaryote

Archaea

Correct answer:

Eukaryote

Explanation:

Like other eukaryotes, fungal cells contain a membrane bound nucleus with chromosomes. They also possess membrane bound cytoplasmic organelles such as ribosomes and mitochondria. A prokaryote is a single celled organism that lacks a membrane bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane bound organelles.  

Example Question #3 : Understanding Prokaryotic Cell Differences

Which of the following bacteria requires an oxygen-free environment?

Possible Answers:

Obligate anaerobe

Facultative aerobe

Obligate aerobe

Facultative anaerobe

Correct answer:

Obligate anaerobe

Explanation:

Obligate organisms require a certain environment in order to survive. Facultative organisms have a preference but can usually survive multiple environments. Therefore, a bacteria that requires an oxygen-free environment is an obligate anaerobe. Obligate anaerobes are microorganisms that are killed by normal atmospheric concentrations of oxygen.

Example Question #2 : Understanding Prokaryotic Cell Differences

Which of the following is an example of a prokaryote cell?

Possible Answers:

Mitochondria

Muscle cell in a human

Plant cell

Bacteria

Correct answer:

Bacteria

Explanation:

Bacteria are prokaryotes, not eukaryotes. Eukaryotes have membrane-bound organelles and an enclosed nucleus. “Mitochondria” is incorrect and it refers to an organelle in eukaryotes. Muscle cells in humans and plant cells are also eukaryotic cells.

Example Question #11 : Cellular Differences

A special dye bonds chiefly to the DNA in cells and is used to help visualize DNA under the microscope. After preparing a microscope slide from human intestine epithelium and observing, a researcher notices that there are differences in the concentration of the dye in the cells on the slide; some dye spots are denser or more defined than in other cells. Which of the following represents the most logical conclusion?

Possible Answers:

None of these

There are eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells in the sample

The dye is unable to bond to any DNA due to residual stomach acids and collects unevenly

There could only be Prokaryotic cells in the sample and the unevenness in dye concentration is due to the differing cell density across the microscope slide

Procedural error

Correct answer:

There are eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells in the sample

Explanation:

Eukaryotes and prokaryotes are distinguished based on a structure called the nucleus. Eukaryotes have a nucleus, which houses their genetic material. Prokaryotes do not have a nucleus; instead their DNA is localized in an area (i.e. it is not membrane bound). So if the researcher were to stain a sample containing both types of cells, the eukaryotic cells would have darker, more defined stains within their cells. This would indicate the presence of a more compacted and localized DNA than that found in prokaryotes.

Example Question #91 : Cell Structures And Organelles

Which of the following is not a difference between eukaryotes and prokaryotes?

Possible Answers:

Prokaryotes do not have membrane-bound organelles.

Eukaryotic cell DNA is wrapped around histones.

Prokaryotes have 70s ribosomes, whereas eukaryotes have 80s ribosomes.

Prokaryotes have circular DNA.

Prokaryotes do not have a cell membrane.

Correct answer:

Prokaryotes do not have a cell membrane.

Explanation:

Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells have cell membranes. However, the prokaryotic cell membrane is surrounded by a cell wall. Prokaryotes have circular DNA, whereas eukaryotic DNA is in chromosomes and bound by histone proteins. Prokaryotes do not have membrane-bound organelles (endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, chloroplasts, Golgi bodies, nucleus). Prokaryotic ribosomes are smaller (70s) than eukaryotic ribosomes (80s).

Example Question #11 : Cellular Differences

Which of the following organelles is found in plant cells, but not in animal cells?

Possible Answers:

Mitochondria

Ribosomes

Nucleus

Chloroplasts

Correct answer:

Chloroplasts

Explanation:

Plant cells are very similar to animal cells, but receive energy from sunlight. As a result, they require chloroplasts in order to house the chlorophyll where photosynthesis takes place. Animal cells are incapable of photosynthesis, and do not contain chloroplasts.

The other listed structures are found in both animal and plant cells.

Example Question #1 : Understanding Plant Cell Differences

Which of the following structures is found in plant cells, but not animal cells?

Possible Answers:

Endoplasmic reticulum

Cell membrane

Chloroplasts

Nucleus

Correct answer:

Chloroplasts

Explanation:

Both plant and animal cells contain a nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, and cell membrane. Plants and animals are both eukaryotic, meaning they have the ability to house membrane-bound organelles.

Chloroplasts are required for producing chlorophyll from sunlight. Animals are incapable of performing photosynthesis because they lack these structures; only plant cells and certain protists contain chloroplasts. Additionally, all plant cells contain vacuoles, while only a subset of animal cells do.

Example Question #92 : Cell Biology

Which of the following organelles is present in plant cells, but not in animal cells?

Possible Answers:

Rough endoplasmic reticulum

Nucleus

Mitochondria

Chloroplasts

Cell membrane

Correct answer:

Chloroplasts

Explanation:

Mitochondria are membrane-bound organelles found in both plant and animal cells, and provide energy for the cell by converting different forms of reactants into ATP. The cell membrane is present in both types of cells and separates the environment from the inside of the cell, and provides cell structure and protection. The rough endoplasmic reticulum is present in both types of cells and is responsible for the storage and packaging of proteins and vesicles. The nucleus is present in both types of cells and controls the general activities of the cell, including gene expression and cell division.

Of these answer choices, only chloroplasts are present in plants cells, but not animal cells. Plant cells are photosynthetic and create their own form of energy from sunlight. The photosynthesis occurs in the chloroplasts of plant cells, which contain the pigment chlorophyll.

Example Question #161 : High School Biology

What are two characteristics of chlorophyll?

Possible Answers:

Transport water within the plant and reflect green light

Convert electromagnetic energy to chemical energy and reflect green light

Transport water within the plant and absorb green light

Convert electromagnetic energy to chemical energy and absorb green light

Correct answer:

Convert electromagnetic energy to chemical energy and reflect green light

Explanation:

Chlorophyll is a pigment found in chloroplasts of plant cells. The electrons of chlorophyll become excited by certain wavelengths of light, and can use this energy to create chemical bonds. This process is known as photosynthesis. The net result of photosynthesis is the conversion of electromagnetic waves (light) to chemical energy (sugar).

Wavelengths that correspond to green light are not used by chlorophyll, and are not absorbed by the pigment. Green light is reflected back from the leaves of the plant, and absorbed by the eyes of an observer. This is what makes leaves look green.

Example Question #91 : Cell Biology

Which of the following is not an extracellular structure in a plant cell?

Possible Answers:

Cell wall

Chloroplast

Middle lamella

Pectin

Correct answer:

Chloroplast

Explanation:

Plant cells contain chloroplasts and are surrounded by a cell wall. Pectin is a carbohydrate found in the cell wall outside of the cell. The middle lamella is a structure composed of pectin and is used to hold adjacent cell walls together, similar to the action of a desmosome.

Chloroplasts are the only option that is located within the cytosol of the plant cell.

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