AP Art History : Near Eastern 2D Art

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Art History

varsity tutors app store varsity tutors android store

Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Near Eastern 2 D Art

Bd hunefer

The medium in which this work was created was _____________________.

Possible Answers:

carving in stone

mosaic in tile

paint on papyrus

oil on canvas

Correct answer:

paint on papyrus

Explanation:

As the Book of the Dead, from which the Last Judgment of Hu-Nefer was taken, was seen by Egyptians as a crucial guide for the deceased buried in a tomb, portability was desirable. Placing it on papyrus, with a straightforward painting, made it relatively less imposing than carved stone or massive wall frescoes, but also easier to read through the different sections.

Image is in the public domain, accessed through Wikipedia Media Commons: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:BD_Hunefer.jpg

Example Question #32 : 2 D Art Beyond European Artistic Traditions

Which of the following best explains the intended function of lamassus?

625px human headed winged bull profile

Possible Answers:

They were meant to denote specific areas of the citadel

They were meant to be offerings to the gods

They were simply meant to be decorative and had no deeper meaning

They were meant to tell stories

They were meant to ward off evil spirits

Correct answer:

They were meant to ward off evil spirits

Explanation:

Lamassus were believed to be atropopaic, or imbued with the power to ward off evil spirits or bad luck. They were placed outside the king's citadel to protect against just that. They would also be placed in gateways as guardians under archways.

Image is in the public domain, accessed through Wikipedia Media Commons: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Human_headed_winged_bull_profile.jpg

Example Question #1 : Near Eastern 2 D Art

Bd hunefer

The figure with a jackal's head represented twice on the left hand portion of the work shown is ____________________.

Possible Answers:

Anubis

Ra

Isis

Osiris

Correct answer:

Anubis

Explanation:

The figure of Anubis, the Egyptian God of the afterlife and mummification, was represented in Egyptian art as having the head of a jackal. His role was to help lead the newly deceased through the underworld, particularly to the ceremony of the weighing of the heart to judge whether the individual was morally upright enough to pass through the afterlife. This role makes him crucial to appear in a work such as The Book of the Dead, as he served a crucial role in the funerary rites.

Image is in the public domain, accessed through Wikipedia Media Commons: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:BD_Hunefer.jpg

Example Question #2 : Understanding Terminology That Describes Near Eastern 2 D Art

What is this piece called?


625px human headed winged bull profile

Possible Answers:

Register

Ground plan

Cuneiform

Lamassu

Sarcophagus

Correct answer:

Lamassu

Explanation:

This is called a lamassu. Lamassus were massive winged bulls with human heads. They were often depicted in Assyrian art and myth. (Cuneiform was ancient writing, a sarcophagus is a type of coffin, a register is a horizontal band that tells a narrative story, and a ground plan is a map of where things are on the floor of a building.)

Image is in the public domain, accessed through Wikipedia Media Commons: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Human_headed_winged_bull_profile.jpg

Example Question #3 : Understanding Terminology That Describes Near Eastern 2 D Art

This lamassu is a good example of what type of artistic technique?

625px human headed winged bull profile

Possible Answers:

Cong

Relief sculpture

Cella

Apadana

Votive

Correct answer:

Relief sculpture

Explanation:

The lamassu is a good example of a relief sculpture. This is a sculpture that projects out of a flat background. In this case, the figure projects out of the slab of alabaster. Relief sculptures give the illusion of a three-dimensional image. (A votive is an offering given in exchange for a vow or promise, apadanas and cellas are architectural features found in ancient Middle Eastern palaces and temples respectively, and congs are ancient Chinese tube-shaped objects with circular holes cut into square-like cross sections.)

Image is in the public domain, accessed through Wikipedia Media Commons: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Human_headed_winged_bull_profile.jpg

Example Question #1 : Identifying Artists, Works, Or Schools Of Near Eastern 2 D Art

What culture is this piece associated with?

625px human headed winged bull profile

Possible Answers:

Egyptian

Chaldean

Assyrian

Babylonian

Sumerian

Correct answer:

Assyrian

Explanation:

This piece is a work of Assyrian art. The Assyrian people were one of several cultures that lived in the Fertile Crescent of the Middle East (the Sumerians, Babylonians and Chaldeans also did, but at different times and in different regions). This region is now modern-day Iran.

Image is in the public domain, accessed through Wikipedia Media Commons: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Human_headed_winged_bull_profile.jpg

Example Question #4 : Near Eastern 2 D Art

Bd hunefer

The Egyptian work of art shown here depicts ___________________.

Possible Answers:

a god creating the world

a priest performing a religious ritual

a pharaoh being coronated

a man entering the afterlife

Correct answer:

a man entering the afterlife

Explanation:

The work of art shown here, known as the Last Judgment of Hu-nefer, depicts the scribe Hu-nefer going through the process of transitioning from life into the afterlife. Specifically, it is contained in a "Book of the Dead" that was intended as a guide for the dead individual to successfully make it through the steps that would ensure a progression through the underworld Duat to becoming an Akh, or blessed spirit.

Image is in the public domain, accessed through Wikipedia Media Commons: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:BD_Hunefer.jpg

Example Question #42 : 2 D Art Beyond European Artistic Traditions

Bd hunefer

The production of this text was most likely begun by ______________________.

Possible Answers:

the command of the pharaoh for whom the man pictured worked

the person with whom it was entombed

the communal work of an entire group of society

a professional artist seeking payment

Correct answer:

the person with whom it was entombed

Explanation:

A Book of the Dead, in which this work known as The Last Judgment of Hu-Nefer was contained, was made specifically for the individual with whom it was entombed. In this case, the scribe Hu-Nefer would have made his personal copy before his death to make sure he was well prepared to pass through the afterlife. Although not a pharaoh or even a member of the royal family, Hu-Nefer still could only produce a personal Book of the Dead due to being an important and well-educated member of society.

Image is in the public domain, accessed through Wikipedia Media Commons: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:BD_Hunefer.jpg

Example Question #1 : Near Eastern 2 D Art

This lamassu was placed in the citadel of which king?

625px human headed winged bull profile

Possible Answers:

Hammurabi

Tutankhamen

Nimrud

Shamash

Sargon II

Correct answer:

Sargon II

Explanation:

This lamassu was placed outside the citadel of Sargon II. It dates back to 720-750 B.C.E. in what is today Khorsabad. These lamassus were placed at the gates as guardians and also bore the weight of the gates' arches. (Shamash and Hammurabi were figures in Babylonian history and myth, Tutankhamen was an Egyptian pharaoh, and Nimrud was another city in Assyria.)

Image is in the public domain, accessed through Wikipedia Media Commons: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Human_headed_winged_bull_profile.jpg

Example Question #7 : Near Eastern 2 D Art

Where is this lamassu located now?

625px human headed winged bull profile

Possible Answers:

The British Museum, London

The Louvre, Paris

Museum of Natural History, New York

LACMA, Los Angeles

The Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia

Correct answer:

The Louvre, Paris

Explanation:

This lamassu is now found at the Louvre in Paris, France. The lamassus are set up to be between an archway, as they would have been set up in King Sargon II's citadel. Some of the other museums mentioned also have Assyrian art on display, but not necessarily lamassus such as this one.

Image is in the public domain, accessed through Wikipedia Media Commons: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Human_headed_winged_bull_profile.jpg

Learning Tools by Varsity Tutors