5th Grade Science : Describe the amounts of water on Earth

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for 5th Grade Science

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Earth's Distribution Of Water

Where is the majority of water on Earth found?

Map, Map Of The World, Relief Map, Earth

Possible Answers:

Plants

Oceans

Lakes

Rivers

Correct answer:

Oceans

Explanation:

According to the United States Geological Survey, "About 71 percent of the Earth's surface is water-covered, and the oceans hold about 96.5 percent of all Earth's water. Water also exists in the air as water vapor, in rivers and lakes, in icecaps and glaciers, in the ground as soil moisture and in aquifers, and even in you and your dog. The vast majority of water on the Earth's surface, over 96 percent, is saline water in the oceans. The freshwater resources, such as water falling from the skies and moving into streams, rivers, lakes, and groundwater, provide people with the water they need every day to live. Even though you may only notice water on the Earth's surface, there is much more freshwater stored in the ground than there is in liquid form on the surface. Some of the water you see flowing in rivers comes from the seepage of groundwater into river beds. Water from precipitation continually seeps into the ground to recharge aquifers, while at the same time, water in the ground continually recharges rivers through seepage. Water is never sitting still. Thanks to the water cycle, our planet's water supply is constantly moving from one place to another and from one form to another." Overall there are said to be 326 million trillion gallons of water on Earth, and only 3% is fresh water. 

Based on this information and the photo, it can be determined that the surface of the Earth is mostly covered by saltwater from the oceans. So that is where most of the water on Earth is found.

Source: https://www.usgs.gov/special-topic/water-science-school/science/how-much-water-there-earth?qt-science_center_objects=0#qt-science_center_objects

Example Question #2 : Earth's Distribution Of Water

About 71% of Earth's surface is covered by water and of that 97% is saltwater located in oceans. The water in the ocean only contains about three to four percent salt. If you wanted to replicate this at home, you could mix six ounces of water with a teaspoon of salt, and it would be the same salinity as ocean water. Oceans become saltier over time as water evaporates, and small amounts of salt are carried to the oceans by rivers.
 
Select which statement is true.
Possible Answers:

Oceans become saltier over time because of condensation

97% of the water on Earth is comprised of saltwater

Oceans only contain three to four percent of the Earth's water

Rivers are one teaspoon of salt to every six ounces of water

Correct answer:

97% of the water on Earth is comprised of saltwater

Explanation:

These statements all take pieces or parts out of the passage to appear as accurate text evidence, but only one answer choice is correct in all ways. 97% of the water on Earth is comprised of saltwater is a true statement. The surface of the Earth is mostly covered by saltwater from the oceans. Only 3% of Earth's water is freshwater and can be found in rivers, lakes, aquifers, ponds, etc..

Example Question #3 : Earth's Distribution Of Water

One-third of Earth's freshwater is located underground. This is less than the amount found in glaciers but more than the amount found in lakes and rivers.
 
Which source of freshwater has the smallest quantity of water?
Possible Answers:

Groundwater

Lakes and rivers

Glaciers

None of the answers are correct.

Correct answer:

Glaciers

Explanation:

Glaciers are large chunks of ice found in very cold places like the North and South Poles. In Antarctica, the ice can be up to three miles thick. Only 3% of the water on Earth is fresh water and is split between many different places (ponds, rivers, lakes, swamps, etc.).

Example Question #4 : Earth's Distribution Of Water

A majority of the water on Earth is ________ and ___________.

Possible Answers:

fresh and solid

salty and liquid

fresh and liquid

salty and solid

Correct answer:

salty and liquid

Explanation:

According to the United States Geological Survey, “About 71 percent of the Earth’s surface is water-covered, and the oceans hold about 96.5 percent of all Earth’s water. Water also exists in the air as water vapor, in rivers and lakes, in icecaps and glaciers, in the ground as soil moisture and in aquifers, and even in you and your dog. The vast majority of water on the Earth’s surface, over 96 percent, is saline water in the oceans. The freshwater resources, such as water falling from the skies and moving into streams, rivers, lakes, and groundwater, provide people with the water they need every day to live. Even though you may only notice water on the Earth’s surface, there is much more freshwater stored in the ground than there is in liquid form on the surface. Some of the water you see flowing in rivers comes from the seepage of groundwater into river beds. Water from precipitation continually seeps into the ground to recharge aquifers, while at the same time, water in the ground continually recharges rivers through seepage. Water is never sitting still. Thanks to the water cycle, our planet’s water supply is constantly moving from one place to another and from one form to another.” Overall there are said to be 326 million trillion gallons of water on Earth, and only 3% is freshwater.

Source: https://www.usgs.gov/special-topic/water-science-school/science/how-much-water-there-earth?qt-science_center_objects=0#qt-science_center_objects

Example Question #5 : Earth's Distribution Of Water

Water covers approximately 71% of the Earth's surface in oceans, lakes, and rivers. Water moves into the oceans from rivers and streams. What is the term for the process of water moving out of the ocean?

Possible Answers:

Precipitation

Evaporation

Transpiration

Runoff

Condensation

Correct answer:

Evaporation

Explanation:

The stage in the water cycle where water is heated by the Sun and turns to vapor is evaporation. The water absorbs heat from the Sun's rays and slowly releases it into the atmosphere. Water changes from a liquid state to a gaseous state (vapor) and returns to the atmosphere. The oceans of Earth are the largest collection of water so therefore the most evaporation and precipitation take place over the ocean. Water moves out of the oceans during the process of evaporation.

Example Question #6 : Earth's Distribution Of Water

Which stages of the water cycle add water directly to the oceans?

Possible Answers:

Runoff and precipitation

Precipitation and evaporation

Condensation and runoff

Evaporation and condensation

Correct answer:

Runoff and precipitation

Explanation:

The stage in the water cycle that returns water to Earth is precipitation. Depending on the weather conditions, the temperature on the Earth’s surface and in the atmosphere, and the topography of the land will determine the amount and type of precipitation. Precipitation forms when the droplets in the clouds are too heavy and fall back to Earth. Rain will fall when both the atmosphere and surface temperatures are above freezing. Hail will form when there is a thunderstorm, the temperature in the atmosphere is below freezing, and the surface temperature is above freezing. Snow forms when the temperature is below freezing in the atmosphere and on the surface of Earth. Finally, sleet is formed when the temperature in the atmosphere is above freezing, and the surface temperature is below freezing. These types of precipitation can fall over an ocean and return the water that was previously evaporated.

Runoff is another stage in the water cycle where water is directly added to the oceans. Runoff occurs when water flows downwards due to gravity from the top of landforms such as mountains. It can be in the form of a stream or river, for example. The water returns to the ocean when the mouth of the creek or river intersects with the sea. Runoff also adds to our groundwater supplies as it soaks into the ground and aquifers.

Example Question #7 : Earth's Distribution Of Water

According to the United States Geological Survey, “About 71 percent of the Earth’s surface is water-covered, and the oceans hold about 96.5 percent of all Earth’s water. Water also exists in the air as water vapor, in rivers and lakes, in icecaps and glaciers, in the ground as soil moisture and in aquifers, and even in you and your dog. The vast majority of water on the Earth’s surface, over 96 percent, is saline water in the oceans. The freshwater resources, such as water falling from the skies and moving into streams, rivers, lakes, and groundwater, provide people with the water they need every day to live. Even though you may only notice water on the Earth’s surface, there is much more freshwater stored in the ground than there is in liquid form on the surface. Some of the water you see flowing in rivers comes from the seepage of groundwater into river beds. Water from precipitation continually seeps into the ground to recharge aquifers, while at the same time, water in the ground continually recharges rivers through seepage. Water is never sitting still. Thanks to the water cycle, our planet’s water supply is constantly moving from one place to another and from one form to another.” Overall there are said to be 326 million trillion gallons of water on Earth, and only 3% is fresh water.

Which answer choice best describes the amounts of water on Earth?

Source: https://www.usgs.gov/special-topic/water-science-school/science/how-much-water-there-earth?qt-science_center_objects=0#qt-science_center_objects

Possible Answers:

A majority of the water on Earth is salt water found in ponds, streams, aquifers, and lakes.oceans and seas. A minority amount of water on Earth is freshwater and found in oceans and seas.

A majority of the water on Earth is freshwater found in oceans and seas. A minority amount of water on Earth is saltwater and found in ponds, streams, aquifers, and lakes.

A majority of the water on Earth is salt water found in oceans and seas. A minority amount of water on Earth is freshwater and found in ponds, streams, aquifers, and lakes.

A minority amount of the water on Earth is salt water found in oceans and seas. A majority amount of water on Earth is freshwater and found in ponds, streams, aquifers, and lakes.

Correct answer:

A majority of the water on Earth is salt water found in oceans and seas. A minority amount of water on Earth is freshwater and found in ponds, streams, aquifers, and lakes.

Explanation:

There are said to be 326 million trillion gallons of water on Earth, and a majority of that water (about 97%) is saltwater. This water can be found in seas and oceans. Freshwater only makes up about 3% of the water on Earth and can be found in the air as water vapor, in rivers and lakes, in icecaps and glaciers, in the ground as soil moisture and in aquifers.

Example Question #8 : Earth's Distribution Of Water

True or False: Oceans of freshwater cover much of Earth’s surface. Freshwater is water that contains little or no salt. Most of Earth’s saltwater is frozen in ice caps and glaciers.

Possible Answers:

False

True

Correct answer:

False

Explanation:

The statement "Oceans of freshwater cover much of Earth's surface. Freshwater is water that contains little or no salt. Most of Earth's saltwater is frozen in ice caps and glaciers." is false. To make this statement true, it should be edited to say, "Oceans of saltwater cover much of Earth's surface. Freshwater is water that contains little or no salt. Most of Earth's freshwater is frozen in ice caps and glaciers." There are 326 million trillion gallons of water on Earth, and a majority of that water (about 97%) is saltwater. This water can be found in seas and oceans. Freshwater only makes up about 3% of the water on Earth and can be found in the air as water vapor, in rivers and lakes, in icecaps and glaciers, in the ground as soil moisture, and in aquifers.

Example Question #9 : Earth's Distribution Of Water

True or False: The total amount of water on Earth does not change.

Possible Answers:

False

True

Correct answer:

True

Explanation:

The statement "The total amount of water on Earth does not change." is true. All of Earth's water is recycled through the water cycle. When water evaporates, it is not gone; it is just in vapor (gaseous) form that is unseen until it condenses. Water animals drink returned to the Earth through their excretory systems; precipitation replenishes rain that has condensed and evaporated. The same water on Earth today was around when dinosaurs roamed because it is all recycled.

Example Question #10 : Earth's Distribution Of Water

Where does most of Earth's precipitation and evaporation occur?

Possible Answers:

Mountains

Lakes

Oceans

Rainforests

Grasslands

Correct answer:

Oceans

Explanation:

The stage in the water cycle where water is heated by the Sun and turns to vapor is evaporation. The water absorbs heat from the Sun's rays and slowly releases it into the atmosphere. Water changes from a liquid state to a gaseous state (vapor) and returns to the atmosphere.

The stage in the water cycle that returns water to Earth is precipitation. Depending on the weather conditions, the temperature on the Earth's surface and in the atmosphere, and the topography of the land will determine the amount and type of precipitation. Precipitation forms when the droplets in the clouds are too heavy and fall back to Earth. Rain will fall when both the atmosphere and surface temperatures are above freezing. Hail will form when there is a thunderstorm, the temperature in the atmosphere is below freezing, and the surface temperature is above freezing. Snow forms when the temperature is below freezing in the atmosphere and on the surface of Earth. Finally, sleet is formed when the temperature in the atmosphere is above freezing, and the surface temperature is below freezing.

These two processes take place most frequently over the Earth's oceans because they are the largest bodies of water on Earth. Nearly 71% of the Earth's surface is covered with water, and 96% of that water is saltwater.

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