5th Grade Science : Earth and Space Science

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for 5th Grade Science

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : 5th Grade Science

Select the planet that is closest to the sun. 

Possible Answers:

Mercury 

Earth

Neptune

Venus

Correct answer:

Mercury 

Explanation:

To answer this question correctly, we need to recall the order of the planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. 

We can use a mnemonic device to help us remember this order. A common mnemonic device is: My Very Excellent Mom Just Served Us Noodles. The first letter of each word matches the first letter of each planet. You can come up with your own mnemonic device to help you remember the order of the planets! 

The diagram provided shows the order of the planets. We can see that Mercury is the closest planet from the sun; thus, Mercury is the correct answer. 

Solar system

Image adapted from public domain NASA image at http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/images/ppj_hp_pluto.jpg.

Example Question #2 : 5th Grade Science

Select the planet that is furthest away from the sun. 

Possible Answers:

Jupiter 

Saturn 

Neptune

Uranus 

Correct answer:

Neptune

Explanation:

To answer this question correctly, we need to recall the order of the planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. 

We can use a mnemonic device to help us remember this order. A common mnemonic device is: My Very Excellent Mom Just Served Us Noodles. The first letter of each word matches the first letter of each planet. You can come up with your own mnemonic device to help you remember the order of the planets! 

The diagram provided shows the order of the planets. We can see that Neptune is the furthest away planet from the sun; thus, Neptune is the correct answer. 

Solar system

Image adapted from public domain NASA image at http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/images/ppj_hp_pluto.jpg.

Example Question #3 : 5th Grade Science

Select the planet that comes before Earth. 

Possible Answers:

Venus 

Jupiter 

Mercury 

Mars

Correct answer:

Venus 

Explanation:

To answer this question correctly, we need to recall the order of the planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. 

We can use a mnemonic device to help us remember this order. A common mnemonic device is: My Very Excellent Mom Just Served Us Noodles. The first letter of each word matches the first letter of each planet. You can come up with your own mnemonic device to help you remember the order of the planets! 

The diagram provided shows the order of the planets. We can see that Venus comes before Earth; thus, Venus is the correct answer. 

Solar system

Image adapted from public domain NASA image at http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/images/ppj_hp_pluto.jpg.

Example Question #4 : 5th Grade Science

Select the planet that comes after Earth. 

Possible Answers:

Mars

Venus

Mercury 

Jupiter 

Correct answer:

Mars

Explanation:

To answer this question correctly, we need to recall the order of the planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. 

We can use a mnemonic device to help us remember this order. A common mnemonic device is: My Very Excellent Mom Just Served Us Noodles. The first letter of each word matches the first letter of each planet. You can come up with your own mnemonic device to help you remember the order of the planets! 

The diagram provided shows the order of the planets. We can see that Mars is comes after Earth; thus, Mars is the correct answer. 

Solar system

Image adapted from public domain NASA image at http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/images/ppj_hp_pluto.jpg.

Example Question #1 : Earth And Space Science

Jinger was researching water sources on Earth and learned that only 3% of Earth's water is freshwater. She also read that this resource is becoming polluted in a significant way. Which answer choice(s) demonstrates a rational solution to the water pollution problem?

Possible Answers:

Keep litter, pet wastes, leaves, and debris out of street gutters and storm drains.

Apply lawn and garden chemicals sparingly and according to directions.

Dispose of used oil, antifreeze, paints, and other household chemicals properly.

All of the answer choices are correct.

Correct answer:

All of the answer choices are correct.

Explanation:

Jinger is very proactive in thinking of ways that she can reduce her impact on our freshwater resources. With only 3% of the Earth providing necessary freshwater supplies, humans cannot afford to waste or poison the water. Keep litter, pet wastes, leaves, and debris out of street gutters and storm drains to keep sewer systems from being overwhelmed with materials that need to be sorted and cleaned. Disposing of used oil, antifreeze, paints, and other household chemicals properly are essential for lakes and ponds in nearby areas. Water run-off from hosing these materials out of driveways or flushing them down storm drains leads to absorption and spread. Applying lawn and garden chemicals sparingly and according to directions will help to reduce waste and overuse of harmful chemicals that leak into water sources.

Example Question #2 : Earth And Space Science

The United States Environmental Protection Agency released a report of the different sources of energy and how much of each was consumed between 1949 and 2017. The EPA reported that:

"From 1949 to 2017, total U.S. energy use roughly tripled. Energy use has risen fairly steadily over time, with the exception of a few noticeable declines in the 1970s, 1980s, and late 2000s, which were largely associated with supply shocks (e.g., the 1973 oil embargo) or economic downturn. In 1949, the U.S. obtained 91 percent of its energy from fossil fuels. Despite the emergence of nuclear power and the growth of renewable sources, in 2017, the nation still relied on fossil fuels for 80 percent of its energy needs. For that year, the largest share (37 percent) of U.S. energy consumed was derived from petroleum (including gasoline), followed by natural gas (29 percent) and coal (14 percent). Recent years have seen increases in some sources of energy (natural gas and renewables) and decreases in others (petroleum and coal)."

Screen shot 2020 06 24 at 3.05.30 pm

Burning coal, oil, and gasoline give off sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon into the air. These emissions combine with water vapor in the clouds and make acid – sulfuric, nitric, and carbonic acid. The wind carries acidic clouds, sometimes thousands of miles. They fall to Earth as acid rain or snow. How can the effects of these emissions be decreased?

Source: https://cfpub.epa.gov/roe/indicator.cfm?i=93

Possible Answers:

Driving more gasoline-powered cars

Increase carbon, sulfur and nitrogen use

Using coal to power trains, planes, and cars

Using electricity derived from wind, water, or solar power

Correct answer:

Using electricity derived from wind, water, or solar power

Explanation:

Energy consumption and the sources used to feed this every growing need are a constant battle and concern in the United States. Reliance on renewable resources would limit the use of petroleum, natural gas, and coal, which are nonrenewable fossil fuels. These resources take millions of years to replenish, and our supply is slowly running out. Renewable resources like hydroelectric power, solar power, and wind power are all options that are a financial investment to start but cost less over time, have a dramatically less negative impact on the Earth, and do not run out. The idea to increase the reliance on renewable sources and decrease the dependence on nonrenewable sources is a scientifically based idea that is reasonable and may work. Using electricity derived from wind, water, or solar power will be beneficial to decreasing emissions.

Example Question #3 : Earth And Space Science

Blin and Dev are brainstorming ideas to help protect Earth's resources. They know there are decreasing numbers of pollinators for fruit and vegetable plants. These resources are vital to providing us with the food we need to eat. How can Blin and Dev help protect the pollinators we have and increase their numbers?

 

Possible Answers:

Plant flowers that bloom in a variety of colors. Bees, hummingbirds, bats, and other insects are all attracted to different color petals.

Use pesticides to kill unwanted bugs and herbicides on weeds or plants that should be removed.

Reduce the amount of shelter in the area for pollinators to live.

Remove any shallow birdbaths, fountains, or ponds that would give pollinators a place to drink or bathe.

Correct answer:

Plant flowers that bloom in a variety of colors. Bees, hummingbirds, bats, and other insects are all attracted to different color petals.

Explanation:

Blin and Dev are highlighting a significant problem around the world - the reduction of pollinators. These are one of Earth's vital resources because they help plants reproduce and make the fruits and vegetables we consume daily. Pollinators can be birds, bats, bees, butterflies, and many other creatures. They spread pollen from one plant to another, allowing the plant to become fertilized. Planting flowers that bloom in a variety of colors will attract different pollinators to the different colored color petals. This will increase the likelihood of plants being fertilized and reproduction occurring.

Example Question #4 : Earth And Space Science

The Environmental Protection Agency issues reports on many factors that impact the Earth's environment. The following graph highlights the area of growth in the United States and our emissions. The EPA explains the graph's data, "Between 1970 and 2018, the combined emissions of the six common pollutants (PM2.5 and PM10, SO2, NOx, VOCs, CO, and Pb) dropped by 74 percent. This progress occurred while the U.S. economy continued to grow, Americans drove more miles, and population and energy use increased."

Screen shot 2020 06 29 at 8.36.58 am

CO(Carbon Dioxide) emissions have been on the decline according to the graph. Which answer choice(s) could be a reason for this reduction in emissions?

Source: https://gispub.epa.gov/air/trendsreport/2019/#home

Possible Answers:

More hybrid vehicles being used

All of the answer choices are correct

Electric cars becoming more affordable to the everyday driver

More public transportation methods being utilized

Correct answer:

All of the answer choices are correct

Explanation:

Clean air is essential for all citizens of the United States, and according to the EPA, many of our emissions have decreased in recent years, but there is still room for improvement. Hybrid vehicles and electric vehicles have come down in price, making them more affordable for the everyday driver. This new access to an alternative full vehicle reduces the emissions produced. Many cities are improving their public transit infrastructures allowing residents to use busses, trains, and high-speed rail systems to travel. This reduces the number of individual drivers on the roads, so there are fewer emissions.

Example Question #5 : Earth And Space Science

Pankaj is presenting helpful tips for protecting Earth's resources to his class tomorrow. He is running through his speech and finds an error with one of the pieces of advice. Which tip is NOT a helpful way to protect Earth's resources?

Possible Answers:

Run the dishwasher only when empty.

Unplug chargers and appliances when not in use.

Plan your weekly meals to waste less food.

Turn your engine off when idling longer than 15 minutes.

Correct answer:

Run the dishwasher only when empty.

Explanation:

Pankaj has included useful tips for his teacher and classmates, but there is one that he should not recommend that they follow, "Run the dishwasher only when empty.". This would be quite a waste of water and would not conserve resources. Pankaj should suggest that the dishwasher be run when full so water and electricity are not wasted. Water is a precious natural resource and should not be lost on just a few dirty dishes

Example Question #6 : Earth And Space Science

How could nonrenewable resources be replaced with renewable resources?

Possible Answers:

Heat homes with gas instead of wood.

Use artificial Christmas trees instead of living ones.

Create electricity with solar energy instead of coal.

Dig new wells for freshwater when rivers become polluted.

Correct answer:

Create electricity with solar energy instead of coal.

Explanation:

Nonrenewable energy resources, like coal, nuclear, oil, and natural gas, are available in limited supplies. This is usually due to the long time it takes for them to be replenished. Renewable resources are replenished naturally and over relatively short periods. Renewable resources include biomass energy (such as ethanol), hydropower, geothermal power, wind energy, and solar energy. Creating electricity with solar energy instead of coal will reduce the dependence on fossil fuels, find a cleaner way to produce electricity, and reserve more coal.

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