AP World History : Philosophies and Ideologies 1750 to 1900

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP World History

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Example Questions

Example Question #223 : Ap World History

Which city became known as “the window to the west” in Russia during the eighteenth century?

Possible Answers:

Novgorod

Yekaterinburg

Minsk

Moscow

St. Petersburg

Correct answer:

St. Petersburg

Explanation:

St. Petersburg was constructed in 1703, during the reign of Russian Tsar Peter the Great. Much of Peter’s time in power was concerned with improving the Russian navy and establishing Russian ports in the Baltic, the Black Sea, and the Caspian Sea. In the last two attempts he was unsuccessful, but in the construction of St. Petersburg he broke Sweden’s control over access to the Baltic Sea. St. Petersburg, which would serve as the capital of the Russian Empire, from the early eighteenth century until the Russian Revolution in 1917, became known as Russia’s “window to the West.”

Example Question #73 : Philosophies And Ideologies

Charles Fourier and Robert Owen are remembered as early advocates for __________.

Possible Answers:

aggressive nationalism

reactionary conservatism

radical liberalism

utopian socialism

democratic socialism

Correct answer:

utopian socialism

Explanation:

Charles Fourier and Robert Owen are remembered as early advocates for utopian socialism. Both Fourier and Owen predate Marx, and their version of socialism may be understood as distinct from Marxism. Owen and Fourier advocated for utopian socialism on a very small-scale and communities modeled on their writings arose in France, Britain, and the United States of America in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.

Example Question #81 : Philosophies And Ideologies

In which of these centuries did nationalism emerge as a prominent force in European affairs?

Possible Answers:

Nineteenth

Sixteenth

Seventeenth

Twentieth

Fifteenth

Correct answer:

Nineteenth

Explanation:

The concept of nationalism emerged as a prominent force in European affairs in the early nineteenth century. People in Europe had long held common and shared national identities, but the rising tide of nationalism in the nineteenth century was of a different order. It threatened the unity of multinational empires such as the Ottoman Empire, the Russian Empire, and the Austro-Hungarian Empire, as people campaigned for the right to self-determination throughout Europe.

Example Question #21 : Philosophies And Ideologies 1750 To 1900

Edmund Burke is often remembered as the father of which of these nineteenth-century movements?

Possible Answers:

Nationalism

Socialism

Liberalism

Secularism

Conservatism

Correct answer:

Conservatism

Explanation:

Edmund Burke was a political theorist and philosopher in Britain in the eighteenth century. He is remembered for his writings on the American Revolution (of which he was in support) and the French Revolution (which he was opposed to the worst excesses of). Burke is widely credited as the founder of modern conservatism for his arguments in favor of gradual change and the preservation of the status quo.

Example Question #83 : Philosophies And Ideologies

Which of these enlightenment thinkers is most associated with religious tolerance?

Possible Answers:

Locke

Voltaire

Hobbes

Montesquieu

Descartes

Correct answer:

Voltaire

Explanation:

Voltaire is the enlightenment thinker who is most readily associated with religious tolerance. Voltaire wrote letters to monarchs all over Europe decrying the insidious impact of Christianity on European society. He believed strongly in Deism and argued that all men were equal in the eyes of God and that all faiths deserved equal respect and merit in a free and open society. Voltaire was widely persecuted in his lifetime for his polemical attacks on the Catholic Church.

Example Question #21 : Philosophies And Ideologies 1750 To 1900

Friedrich Nietzsche proposed which of the following philosophical ideas in his work, Thus Spoke Zarathustra?

Possible Answers:

Nihilism

Ubermensch

Transhumanism

Existentialism

Modernism

Correct answer:

Ubermensch

Explanation:

Though the translation of the term has long been disputed, Ubermensch relates to Nietzsche's concept of the death of God. It refers to one who spurns promises of other-worldliness commonly presented through religions and accepts "this worldliness."

Example Question #22 : Philosophies And Ideologies 1750 To 1900

The “consent of the governed” is most associated with which of these enlightenment thinkers?

Possible Answers:

Locke

Diderot

Smith

Voltaire

Hobbes

Correct answer:

Locke

Explanation:

The enlightenment idea that political legitimacy rests in the “consent of the governed” is most closely associated with the writings of John Locke. Locke is often referred to as the father of modern liberalism. His writings on republicanism, religious tolerance, and the social contract have been widely influential in European and American history. The consent of the governed essentially states that the government only has legitimacy to rule over the people so long as the people accept the government. If the government is deemed deficient, the people have a right and duty to overthrow the government.

Example Question #86 : Philosophies And Ideologies

Which of these enlightenment thinkers authored The Social Contract?

Possible Answers:

John Locke

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Adam Smith

Baron de Montesquieu

Voltaire

Correct answer:

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Explanation:

The Social Contract was written by Jean-Jacques Rousseau in 1762. In it Rousseau argues against the authority of absolute monarchs in Europe. Rousseau states that only the people have absolute authority over the nature and form of government and that monarchs are beholden to the people, not the other way around. Rousseau’s ideas were influential in the formation of liberal and democratic constitutions throughout the world, including the framing of the constitution of the United States. Rousseau's ideas were also extremely influential in the outbreak of the French Revolution.

Example Question #87 : Philosophies And Ideologies

Which of these European rulers is not an example of an Enlightened despot?

Possible Answers:

King Henry VIII

Catherine the Great

Joseph II

Frederick the Great

Maria Theresa

Correct answer:

King Henry VIII

Explanation:

King Henry VIII is the only one of these who is not an example of an enlightened despot. He reigned in the early sixteenth century, too early for the enlightenment. An enlightened despot is a ruler who tries to embrace some aspects of the enlightenment, but continues to preserve the authoritarian nature of their autocratic rule. Catherine the Great of Russia, Maria Theresa of Austria, and Frederick the Great of Prussia are the most famous enlightened despots.

Example Question #22 : Philosophies And Ideologies 1750 To 1900

Which of these people is most likely to have been a Deist?

Possible Answers:

Casimir III of Poland

Rene Descartes

Eva Peron

Oliver Cromwell

Nikita Khrushchev

Correct answer:

Rene Descartes

Explanation:

In order to answer this question you first need to understand that a Deist is someone who ascribes to Deism - someone who believes in a “watchmaker God” who created the universe, but then left it to its own devices. Deism was widely embraced by scientists and thinkers during the enlightenment and the scientific revolution. Therefore, Rene Descartes (the famous enlightenment thinker) is the most likely of these answer choices to have been a Deist.

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