AP Psychology : Other Cognitive Principles

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Psychology

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Other Cognitive Principles

What term did Carl Jung introduce to represent the form of the unconscious that is common to mankind as a whole and that contains archetypes, or universal primordial images and ideas?

Possible Answers:

Samsara

Collective unconscious

Morphogenetic field

Anima mundi

Prima materia

Correct answer:

Collective unconscious

Explanation:

The collective unconscious is a term used in analytical psychology, especially Jungian psychology, to describe a part of the unconscious mind that is shared by a society, a people, or all mankind. 

Example Question #1 : Other Cognitive Principles

Which of the following is an example of semantic memory?

Possible Answers:

Salivating when you see your favorite food

Predicting what will happen to you tomorrow

Remembering how to ride a bicycle

Knowing the capital of New York

Recalling your first day of 1st grade

Correct answer:

Knowing the capital of New York

Explanation:

Semantic memory is one's memory for various facts and concepts, so being able to recall the capital of New York is a good example of this type of memory. Remembering how to ride a bicycle is a procedural memory, recalling your first day of 1st grade is an episodic memory, and salivating when you see your favorite food is a conditioned memory.

Example Question #231 : Cognition And Consciousness

What is aphasia?

Possible Answers:

A popular treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)

An impairment in processing visual stimuli

Oxygen deprivation in the brain

An impairment in communication through oral and/or written means

Carbon dioxide deprivation in the brain

Correct answer:

An impairment in communication through oral and/or written means

Explanation:

Aphasia is a language disorder that impacts a person's communication skills. Aphasia typically results from a head injury or stroke, and leaves long-lasting effects on a person's communication abilities depending on the severity and location of the head injury or stroke.

Example Question #1101 : Individual Psychology And Behavior

Which of the following is an instance of cognitive dissonance?

Possible Answers:

A person experiences severe disconnection from their surroundings and psychological distress at the thought of the loneliness of their condition. This kind of alienation is termed cognitive dissonance. 

A person's consciousness becomes fractured and they start to act like two different people at random times. Their behavior begins to represent two antagonistic forces in their consciousness that are fighting each other.

A man steals money from his friend and then experiences a state of stress due to contradicting beliefs. On the one hand, he believed that he was a good person, but he also believes good people don't steal. These two beliefs cannot be true at the same time, so he is in a state of dissonance.

A woman sees her friend in pain and immediately starts to cry. She finds the exact emotions of her friend to be mirrorred within herself. She would then be in a state of dissonance because she finds herself completely immersed in her friend's psychological state of mind. 

Correct answer:

A man steals money from his friend and then experiences a state of stress due to contradicting beliefs. On the one hand, he believed that he was a good person, but he also believes good people don't steal. These two beliefs cannot be true at the same time, so he is in a state of dissonance.

Explanation:

Cognitive dissonance has to do with the beliefs we hold, namely when they come into conflict with one another. For instance, the man has belief number one: Good people do not steal. At the same time, he also believes that he is a good person. When he is confronted with the reality of his actions (that he stole money from his friend), he experiences dissonance since those two beliefs now contradict each other.

Example Question #1102 : Individual Psychology And Behavior

What is confirmation bias?

Possible Answers:

The tendency to look for evidence that confirms our current beliefs

The tendency to hold on to beliefs despite information that contradicts them

The tendency to overlook details when looking for evidence

None of these

Correct answer:

The tendency to look for evidence that confirms our current beliefs

Explanation:

Confirmation bias is the tendency to look for evidence that confirms our current beliefs. This can affect many decisions and beliefs we hold in our lives and can impede us from finding out new things about the world and new solutions to problems.  

Although the answer "the tendency to hold on to beliefs despite information that contradicts them" might have been confusing, this is not confirmation bias. This would be an instance of belief perseverance, since we actually find and recognize truthful but contradictory information, yet hold on to our beliefs anyways. Confirmation bias is when we simply seek out confirming evidence without recognizing this information.

Example Question #1 : Other Cognitive Principles

Which of the following is not assessed on an IQ (cognitive) test?

Possible Answers:

Reading comprehension

Logical reasoning

Processing speed

Auditory processing

Short-term memory

Correct answer:

Reading comprehension

Explanation:

IQ/cognitive tests—for example, WISC-V and WJ-IV—do not assess any academic areas, such as reading, writing, or math. Academic areas are tested on achievement tests, like on the WIAT-III.

Cognitive tests focus on processing skills, such as logic, problem solving, and memory.

Example Question #231 : Cognition And Consciousness

Where is the amygdala located?

Possible Answers:

The limbic system

The cerebellum

The brainstem

The cerebral cortex

The occipital lobe

Correct answer:

The limbic system

Explanation:

The amygdala consists of two almond-shaped clusters that regulate much of our emotional experiences. It is located in the limbic system, which is situated between the brainstem (below) and the cerebral cortex (above). 

Example Question #1105 : Individual Psychology And Behavior

Which term refers to memory loss?

Possible Answers:

Amnesia

Rexitrification

Aphasia

Damagia

Lesion

Correct answer:

Amnesia

Explanation:

Amnesia refers to the loss of memory. One may suffer from retrograde (inability to remember past memories) or anterograde (inability to make new memories) amnesia, both of which are severely debilitating. 

Damagia and rexitrification are false terms that hold no significance in psychology. Aphasia refers to the inability to comprehend or create language. Lesions refer to damaged areas of the brain.

Example Question #1 : Other Cognitive Principles

A subject has sustained damage to Broca's area. Which area of his functioning will be impacted?

Possible Answers:

Producing speech

Inability to form new memories

Poor gross motor skills

Interpreting pictures

Understanding language

Correct answer:

Producing speech

Explanation:

Broca's area is heavily involved in the motor movements behind speech production. Damage to this area makes it extremely difficult or impossible to produce speech, but understanding other people's speech is not impacted. This condition is commonly known as Broca's aphasia or expressive aphasia.

Example Question #1107 : Individual Psychology And Behavior

Which of the following processes is not controlled by the frontal lobe?

Possible Answers:

Hearing

Memory

Impulse inhibition

Problem solving

Language 

Correct answer:

Hearing

Explanation:

The frontal lobe is responsible for many important processes, including problem solving, certain aspects of producing and comprehending language, controlling one's impulses, and consolidating memories. The frontal lobe is not, however, involved in hearing, which mainly takes place in the parietal lobe.

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