AP Psychology : Biology of Sleep

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Psychology

varsity tutors app store varsity tutors android store

Example Questions

Example Question #11 : Cognition And Consciousness

What is insomnia?

Possible Answers:

A sleep disorder in which the affected person may not be able to fall asleep, and keeps waking up during the night

A sleep disorder in which the affected person's circadian rythm is disrupted to the point that the body does not know when it should be asleep

A psychological disorder in which an underlying trauma keeps one awake at night

A psychological disorder in which the affected person cannot sleep due to paranoid or obsessive thinking

Correct answer:

A sleep disorder in which the affected person may not be able to fall asleep, and keeps waking up during the night

Explanation:

Insomnia is a sleep disorder in which the affected person may not be able to fall asleep, and keeps waking up during the night. It affects a significant percentage of Americans, and is mostly caused by stress or some other underlying condition. It is often treated with medications or behavioral therapy.

Example Question #11 : Biology Of Sleep

Which of the following follows a circadian rhythm?

Possible Answers:

Drug absorption

Sleep

Learning

Eating

Dreaming

Correct answer:

Sleep

Explanation:

A circadian rhythm is any process that abides by a 24-hour rhythm. It is best known for helping to tell our bodies when they need sleep. Having a disrupted circadian rhythm is related to negative health outcomes, including various neurological and cardiological problems.

Example Question #11 : Biology Of Sleep

When are hypnagogic sensations most likely to be experienced?

Possible Answers:

NREM-2

NREM-4

NREM-1

NREM-3

REM 

Correct answer:

NREM-1

Explanation:

Sleep occurs in 4 stages, NREM-1, NREM-2, NREM-3, and REM.

It's during the first stage of sleep (NREM-1) that you may experience images that resemble hallucinations. These experiences occur without a sensory stimulation and can sometimes be later incorporated into one's memories.

Example Question #11 : Biology Of Sleep

What is the effect of light on the suprachiasmatic nucleus in terms of sleep?

Possible Answers:

It causes the release of dopamine

It suppresses the release of epinephrine.

It suppresses the release of melatonin 

It excites the pineal gland 

It causes the release of melatonin 

Correct answer:

It suppresses the release of melatonin 

Explanation:

Melatonin is a hormone known to regulate sleep and wake cycles. It is released by the pineal gland into the bloodstream when sleep is prompted.

The pineal gland is in communication with the SCN. When the SCN, a structure in the hypothalamus, senses light from the retinas, it will suppress the release of melatonin from the pineal gland. Thus, we're usually awake during the day time and asleep at night.

Example Question #12 : Biology Of Sleep

Which of the following is considered to be the most common sleep disorder?

Possible Answers:

Insomnia

Narcolepsy

Restless legs syndrome

Obstructive sleep apnea

Night terrors

Correct answer:

Insomnia

Explanation:

Insomnia is a disorder that is characterized by an abnormal difficulty to fall or stay asleep. There are more than three million cases in the United States each year—roughly one percent of the population—and its prevalence is most common among older individuals.

Example Question #11 : Biology Of Sleep

Which of the following best identifies the length of an average sleep cycle?

Possible Answers:

Correct answer:

Explanation:

From stage 1, stage 2, stage 3, stage 4, and REM sleep, the average human sleeps about 90-110 minutes in a typical cycle.

Example Question #15 : Consciousness

Sleep apnea is commonly associated with which of the following?

I. ADHD

II. Depression

III. Obesity

IV. Night terrors

Possible Answers:

III and I

IV only

II and III

I only

I and II

Correct answer:

II and III

Explanation:

Obesity and depression are often associated with sleep apnea. This comorbidity is not commonly observed with the other choices: night terrors and ADHD.

Example Question #11 : Consciousness

Nightmare disorder most commonly occurs in which of the following stages of sleep?

Possible Answers:

Stage 4

Stage 1

REM

None of these

Stage 3

Correct answer:

REM

Explanation:

Parasomnias are disorders that occur during sleep. There are various types of parasomniaas; however, nightmare disorder most commonly occurs during REM—rapid eye movement—sleep stage.

Example Question #13 : Biology Of Sleep

Stage 2 sleep most likely involves which of the following?

Possible Answers:

Deep sleep

Slow waves on EEG readings

Memory consolidation and synaptic pruning

Transition between sleep and wakefulness

Vivid dreams

Correct answer:

Memory consolidation and synaptic pruning

Explanation:

Light sleep, memory consolidation, and synaptic pruning characterize stage 2 sleep. This stage has higher-voltage sleep spindles and K-complexes. It is the transition period from light sleep (stage 1) into slightly deeper sleep (stage 3) and subdued muscle movement.

Example Question #20 : Biology Of Sleep

Which of the following statements is true regarding the sleep stages?

Possible Answers:

People begin in stage one of sleep, progress to stage five, and then experience REM sleep until they wake up.

People cycle through the different stages of sleep throughout the night.

REM cycles always become progressively shorter as the night goes on.

People only experience dreams during stage three of sleep.

People typically sleepwalk during REM sleep.

Correct answer:

People cycle through the different stages of sleep throughout the night.

Explanation:

People typically sleep in five stages: one, two, three, four, and REM. Sleep begins in stage one and progresses to REM. People often cycle back to stage one and then sleep through another cycle. Each cycle typically lasts between 90 and 110 minutes. People dream during REM sleep but are normally paralyzed during this stage, which becomes longer as the night goes on. It is during stage four that sleepwalking typically occurs.

Learning Tools by Varsity Tutors