ACT Science : How to find synthesis of data in biology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for ACT Science

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Example Questions

Example Question #161 : How To Find Synthesis Of Data In Biology

In contrast to prokaryotes, eukaryotes have membrane-bound organelles that allow their cell(s) to compartmentalize different cellular functions. These different functions, which occur only within membrane-bound organelles, include the synthesis and breakdown of different macronutrients fatty acids and proteins. Other processes like glycolysis (the breakdown of carbohydrates) and nucleic acid breakdown can occur outside membrane-bound organelles. Synthesizing different macronutrients is known as anabolism, while breaking down these same nutrients into Adenosine Tri-Phosphate (ATP) is called catabolism.

Macronutrient anabolism and catabolism are balanced by the supply of available energy. In the fed state, where a high concentration of sugar is dissolved in your blood stream, the body prefers to use glucose as its energy source through a pathway called glycolysis. When the supply of glucose in the blood runs low, however, the liver is able to synthesize new glucose in a process called gluconeogenesis. In gluconeogenesis, oxaloacetate, the product of another cycle called the Krebs Cycle is used as the starting point to run glycolysis in reverse, making a new glucose molecule. When these precursors needed to initiate gluconeogenesis run low, the body then turns to the catabolism of proteins and free fatty acids.

Proteins, composed of strands of amino acids, are broken down to generate ATP and oxaloacetate. People who have not eaten for an extended period of time experience low muscle mass due to catabolism of skeletal muscle proteins. Only after available protein is broken down does beta oxidation of free fatty acids begin.

Beta oxidation uses free fatty acids floating in the blood to generate the greatest amount of ATP per gram of starting material of any of the macronutrients. Carried out by enzymes called lipases, beta oxidation splits a long fatty acid chain into two carbon units called acetyl-CoA. Per acetyl-CoA that enters the Krebs Cycle, three NADH and one FADH2 are produced that enter the Electron Transport Chain to drive ATP production. 1 NADH molecule can generate 3 ATP, while 1 FADH2 molecule can generate 2 ATP. Lipases continue to cleave acetyl-COA units off the parent lipid chain until it either produces its last acetyl-CoA molecule or ends in a 3 carbon molecule called propyl-CoA. Propyl-CoA can further undergo catabolism to yield one final acetyl-CoA molecule.

Prokaryotes would be expected to undergo which of the following processes based on the passage?

Possible Answers:

Gluconeogenesis

Electron Transport Chain

Krebs Cycle

Glycolysis

Correct answer:

Glycolysis

Explanation:

In the first paragraph, the passage tells us that prokaryotes differ from eukaryotes in that they cannot do processes that require membrane-bound organelles. We learn the breakdown of carbohydrates and nucleic acids can occur outside these membrane-bound organelles. Thus, we may infer that prokaryotes can undergo glycolysis, the process of breaking down carbohydrates in the cytoplasm.

Example Question #162 : How To Find Synthesis Of Data In Biology

In contrast to prokaryotes, eukaryotes have membrane-bound organelles that allow their cell(s) to compartmentalize different cellular functions. These different functions, which occur only within membrane-bound organelles, include the synthesis and breakdown of different macronutrients fatty acids and proteins. Other processes like glycolysis (the breakdown of carbohydrates) and nucleic acid breakdown can occur outside membrane-bound organelles. Synthesizing different macronutrients is known as anabolism, while breaking down these same nutrients into Adenosine Tri-Phosphate (ATP) is called catabolism.

Macronutrient anabolism and catabolism are balanced by the supply of available energy. In the fed state, where a high concentration of sugar is dissolved in your blood stream, the body prefers to use glucose as its energy source through a pathway called glycolysis. When the supply of glucose in the blood runs low, however, the liver is able to synthesize new glucose in a process called gluconeogenesis. In gluconeogenesis, oxaloacetate, the product of another cycle called the Krebs Cycle is used as the starting point to run glycolysis in reverse, making a new glucose molecule. When these precursors needed to initiate gluconeogenesis run low, the body then turns to the catabolism of proteins and free fatty acids.

Proteins, composed of strands of amino acids, are broken down to generate ATP and oxaloacetate. People who have not eaten for an extended period of time experience low muscle mass due to catabolism of skeletal muscle proteins. Only after available protein is broken down does beta oxidation of free fatty acids begin.

Beta oxidation uses free fatty acids floating in the blood to generate the greatest amount of ATP per gram of starting material of any of the macronutrients. Carried out by enzymes called lipases, beta oxidation splits a long fatty acid chain into two carbon units called acetyl-CoA. Per acetyl-CoA that enters the Krebs Cycle, three NADH and one FADHare produced that enter the Electron Transport Chain to drive ATP production. 1 NADH molecule can generate 3 ATP, while 1 FADH2 molecule can generate 2 ATP. Lipases continue to cleave acetyl-COA units off the parent lipid chain until it either produces its last acetyl-CoA molecule or ends in a 3 carbon molecule called propyl-CoA. Propyl-CoA can further undergo catabolism to yield one final acetyl-CoA molecule.

According to the passage, which process(es) require membrane-bound organelles to occur?

Possible Answers:

Amino Acid Catabolism

Glycolysis

Beta Oxidation

Beta Oxidation and Protein Catabolism

Correct answer:

Beta Oxidation and Protein Catabolism

Explanation:

The first paragraph introduces us to the idea that a few cellular processes require membrane bound organelles. Specifically the first paragraph mentions that breaking down proteins, defined as catabolism later in the pasasge, and beta oxidation of fats both require membrane-bound organelles.

Example Question #163 : How To Find Synthesis Of Data In Biology

In contrast to prokaryotes, eukaryotes have membrane-bound organelles that allow their cell(s) to compartmentalize different cellular functions. These different functions, which occur only within membrane-bound organelles, include the synthesis and breakdown of different macronutrients fatty acids and proteins. Other processes like glycolysis (the breakdown of carbohydrates) and nucleic acid breakdown can occur outside membrane-bound organelles. Synthesizing different macronutrients is known as anabolism, while breaking down these same nutrients into Adenosine Tri-Phosphate (ATP) is called catabolism.

Macronutrient anabolism and catabolism are balanced by the supply of available energy. In the fed state, where a high concentration of sugar is dissolved in your blood stream, the body prefers to use glucose as its energy source through a pathway called glycolysis. When the supply of glucose in the blood runs low, however, the liver is able to synthesize new glucose in a process called gluconeogenesis. In gluconeogenesis, oxaloacetate, the product of another cycle called the Krebs Cycle is used as the starting point to run glycolysis in reverse, making a new glucose molecule. When these precursors needed to initiate gluconeogenesis run low, the body then turns to the catabolism of proteins and free fatty acids.

Proteins, composed of strands of amino acids, are broken down to generate ATP and oxaloacetate. People who have not eaten for an extended period of time experience low muscle mass due to catabolism of skeletal muscle proteins. Only after available protein is broken down does beta oxidation of free fatty acids begin.

Beta oxidation uses free fatty acids floating in the blood to generate the greatest amount of ATP per gram of starting material of any of the macronutrients. Carried out by enzymes called lipases, beta oxidation splits a long fatty acid chain into two carbon units called acetyl-CoA. Per acetyl-CoA that enters the Krebs Cycle, three NADH and one FADHare produced that enter the Electron Transport Chain to drive ATP production. 1 NADH molecule can generate 3 ATP, while 1 FADH2 molecule can generate 2 ATP. Lipases continue to cleave acetyl-COA units off the parent lipid chain until it either produces its last acetyl-CoA molecule or ends in a 3 carbon molecule called propyl-CoA. Propyl-CoA can further undergo catabolism to yield one final acetyl-CoA molecule.

In a fasting state, where a person had not eaten recently, the concentration of glucose in the blood is expected to be which of the following?

Possible Answers:

Low

Intermediate

Cannot Be Determined

High

Correct answer:

Low

Explanation:

The second paragraph allows us to infer that when a person has not eaten, the concentration of glucose is low. The passage directly states that the concentration of glucose is high when a person has just eaten. Thus, but correlary, the concentration is low when a person has not eaten.

Example Question #164 : How To Find Synthesis Of Data In Biology

In contrast to prokaryotes, eukaryotes have membrane-bound organelles that allow their cell(s) to compartmentalize different cellular functions. These different functions, which occur only within membrane-bound organelles, include the synthesis and breakdown of different macronutrients fatty acids and proteins. Other processes like glycolysis (the breakdown of carbohydrates) and nucleic acid breakdown can occur outside membrane-bound organelles. Synthesizing different macronutrients is known as anabolism, while breaking down these same nutrients into Adenosine Tri-Phosphate (ATP) is called catabolism.

Macronutrient anabolism and catabolism are balanced by the supply of available energy. In the fed state, where a high concentration of sugar is dissolved in your blood stream, the body prefers to use glucose as its energy source through a pathway called glycolysis. When the supply of glucose in the blood runs low, however, the liver is able to synthesize new glucose in a process called gluconeogenesis. In gluconeogenesis, oxaloacetate, the product of another cycle called the Krebs Cycle is used as the starting point to run glycolysis in reverse, making a new glucose molecule. When these precursors needed to initiate gluconeogenesis run low, the body then turns to the catabolism of proteins and free fatty acids.

Proteins, composed of strands of amino acids, are broken down to generate ATP and oxaloacetate. People who have not eaten for an extended period of time experience low muscle mass due to catabolism of skeletal muscle proteins. Only after available protein is broken down does beta oxidation of free fatty acids begin.

Beta oxidation uses free fatty acids floating in the blood to generate the greatest amount of ATP per gram of starting material of any of the macronutrients. Carried out by enzymes called lipases, beta oxidation splits a long fatty acid chain into two carbon units called acetyl-CoA. Per acetyl-CoA that enters the Krebs Cycle, three NADH and one FADHare produced that enter the Electron Transport Chain to drive ATP production. 1 NADH molecule can generate 3 ATP, while 1 FADH2 molecule can generate 2 ATP. Lipases continue to cleave acetyl-COA units off the parent lipid chain until it either produces its last acetyl-CoA molecule or ends in a 3 carbon molecule called propyl-CoA. Propyl-CoA can further undergo catabolism to yield one final acetyl-CoA molecule.

A newly discovered species does not have the enzymes necessary to run the Krebs Cycle. What effect would this have on the level of glucose found in this organism’s blood compared to an organism that could run the Krebs Cycle?

Possible Answers:

Cannot Be Determined

Decreased

Remain the Same

Increased

Correct answer:

Decreased

Explanation:

This question asks us to determine the value of the Kreb's Cycle in cellular energy production. Using the last paragraph as a guide, we can see that the Kreb's Cycle generates significantly more ATP per unit glucose compared to glycolysis. Thus, organisms that have the Kreb's Cycle are efficient at using glucose. In an organism that could not use glucose but still had the same energy demands, more glycolysis would need to occur to generate the needed levels of ATP. With more glycolysis, more glucose would come out of the blood. Thus, less glucose would remain in the blood. 

Example Question #165 : How To Find Synthesis Of Data In Biology

In contrast to prokaryotes, eukaryotes have membrane-bound organelles that allow their cell(s) to compartmentalize different cellular functions. These different functions, which occur only within membrane-bound organelles, include the synthesis and breakdown of different macronutrients fatty acids and proteins. Other processes like glycolysis (the breakdown of carbohydrates) and nucleic acid breakdown can occur outside membrane-bound organelles. Synthesizing different macronutrients is known as anabolism, while breaking down these same nutrients into Adenosine Tri-Phosphate (ATP) is called catabolism.

Macronutrient anabolism and catabolism are balanced by the supply of available energy. In the fed state, where a high concentration of sugar is dissolved in your blood stream, the body prefers to use glucose as its energy source through a pathway called glycolysis. When the supply of glucose in the blood runs low, however, the liver is able to synthesize new glucose in a process called gluconeogenesis. In gluconeogenesis, oxaloacetate, the product of another cycle called the Krebs Cycle is used as the starting point to run glycolysis in reverse, making a new glucose molecule. When these precursors needed to initiate gluconeogenesis run low, the body then turns to the catabolism of proteins and free fatty acids.

Proteins, composed of strands of amino acids, are broken down to generate ATP and oxaloacetate. People who have not eaten for an extended period of time experience low muscle mass due to catabolism of skeletal muscle proteins. Only after available protein is broken down does beta oxidation of free fatty acids begin.

Beta oxidation uses free fatty acids floating in the blood to generate the greatest amount of ATP per gram of starting material of any of the macronutrients. Carried out by enzymes called lipases, beta oxidation splits a long fatty acid chain into two carbon units called acetyl-CoA. Per acetyl-CoA that enters the Krebs Cycle, three NADH and one FADHare produced that enter the Electron Transport Chain to drive ATP production. 1 NADH molecule can generate 3 ATP, while 1 FADH2 molecule can generate 2 ATP. Lipases continue to cleave acetyl-COA units off the parent lipid chain until it either produces its last acetyl-CoA molecule or ends in a 3 carbon molecule called propyl-CoA. Propyl-CoA can further undergo catabolism to yield one final acetyl-CoA molecule.

Which macronutrient may be used to form glucose through the process of gluconeogenesis?

Possible Answers:

None of the Other Answers

Proteins

Lipids

Nucleic Acids

Correct answer:

Proteins

Explanation:

The second and third paragraphs allows us to determine the answer to this question. In the third paragraph, we learn that amino acids are broken down into oxaloacetate. In the second paragraph, we can see that oxaloacetate is the starting material to run gluconeogenesis, the generation of glucose. Thus, amino acids can be broken down to form glucose.

Example Question #166 : How To Find Synthesis Of Data In Biology

In contrast to prokaryotes, eukaryotes have membrane-bound organelles that allow their cell(s) to compartmentalize different cellular functions. These different functions, which occur only within membrane-bound organelles, include the synthesis and breakdown of different macronutrients fatty acids and proteins. Other processes like glycolysis (the breakdown of carbohydrates) and nucleic acid breakdown can occur outside membrane-bound organelles. Synthesizing different macronutrients is known as anabolism, while breaking down these same nutrients into Adenosine Tri-Phosphate (ATP) is called catabolism.

Macronutrient anabolism and catabolism are balanced by the supply of available energy. In the fed state, where a high concentration of sugar is dissolved in your blood stream, the body prefers to use glucose as its energy source through a pathway called glycolysis. When the supply of glucose in the blood runs low, however, the liver is able to synthesize new glucose in a process called gluconeogenesis. In gluconeogenesis, oxaloacetate, the product of another cycle called the Krebs Cycle is used as the starting point to run glycolysis in reverse, making a new glucose molecule. When these precursors needed to initiate gluconeogenesis run low, the body then turns to the catabolism of proteins and free fatty acids.

Proteins, composed of strands of amino acids, are broken down to generate ATP and oxaloacetate. People who have not eaten for an extended period of time experience low muscle mass due to catabolism of skeletal muscle proteins. Only after available protein is broken down does beta oxidation of free fatty acids begin.

Beta oxidation uses free fatty acids floating in the blood to generate the greatest amount of ATP per gram of starting material of any of the macronutrients. Carried out by enzymes called lipases, beta oxidation splits a long fatty acid chain into two carbon units called acetyl-CoA. Per acetyl-CoA that enters the Krebs Cycle, three NADH and one FADHare produced that enter the Electron Transport Chain to drive ATP production. 1 NADH molecule can generate 3 ATP, while 1 FADH2 molecule can generate 2 ATP. Lipases continue to cleave acetyl-COA units off the parent lipid chain until it either produces its last acetyl-CoA molecule or ends in a 3 carbon molecule called propyl-CoA. Propyl-CoA can further undergo catabolism to yield one final acetyl-CoA molecule.

In a person who has not eaten for an extended period of time, which process is most likely providing necessary ATP for bodily functions?

Possible Answers:

Nucleic Acid Breakdown

Beta Oxidation

Carbohydrate Breakdown

Gluconeogenesis

Correct answer:

Beta Oxidation

Explanation:

We can use the information contained at the end of the second paragraph to answer this question. After the supply of carbohydrates has run out, as it will have in this patient that has not eaten in a long time, the breakdown of amino acids and fats will occur. Thus, beta oxidation will begin, defined by the passage as the breakdown of fats into useable energy sources.

Example Question #167 : How To Find Synthesis Of Data In Biology

In contrast to prokaryotes, eukaryotes have membrane-bound organelles that allow their cell(s) to compartmentalize different cellular functions. These different functions, which occur only within membrane-bound organelles, include the synthesis and breakdown of different macronutrients fatty acids and proteins. Other processes like glycolysis (the breakdown of carbohydrates) and nucleic acid breakdown can occur outside membrane-bound organelles. Synthesizing different macronutrients is known as anabolism, while breaking down these same nutrients into Adenosine Tri-Phosphate (ATP) is called catabolism.

Macronutrient anabolism and catabolism are balanced by the supply of available energy. In the fed state, where a high concentration of sugar is dissolved in your blood stream, the body prefers to use glucose as its energy source through a pathway called glycolysis. When the supply of glucose in the blood runs low, however, the liver is able to synthesize new glucose in a process called gluconeogenesis. In gluconeogenesis, oxaloacetate, the product of another cycle called the Krebs Cycle is used as the starting point to run glycolysis in reverse, making a new glucose molecule. When these precursors needed to initiate gluconeogenesis run low, the body then turns to the catabolism of proteins and free fatty acids.

Proteins, composed of strands of amino acids, are broken down to generate ATP and oxaloacetate. People who have not eaten for an extended period of time experience low muscle mass due to catabolism of skeletal muscle proteins. Only after available protein is broken down does beta oxidation of free fatty acids begin.

Beta oxidation uses free fatty acids floating in the blood to generate the greatest amount of ATP per gram of starting material of any of the macronutrients. Carried out by enzymes called lipases, beta oxidation splits a long fatty acid chain into two carbon units called acetyl-CoA. Per acetyl-CoA that enters the Krebs Cycle, three NADH and one FADHare produced that enter the Electron Transport Chain to drive ATP production. 1 NADH molecule can generate 3 ATP, while 1 FADH2 molecule can generate 2 ATP. Lipases continue to cleave acetyl-COA units off the parent lipid chain until it either produces its last acetyl-CoA molecule or ends in a 3 carbon molecule called propyl-CoA. Propyl-CoA can further undergo catabolism to yield one final acetyl-CoA molecule.

In a person who has recently eaten, which process is least likely to be occurring? 

Possible Answers:

Glycolysis

None of the Other Answers

Gluconeogenesis

Krebs Cycle

Correct answer:

Gluconeogenesis

Explanation:

The question asks us to relate the presence of nutrient's in a person's blood (derived from a recent meal) to the processes described in the passage. According to the passage, gluconeogenesis only occurs when a person is deficient in glucose in the blood. If the person has just eaten, a ready supply of glucose is available and would be used for glycolysis, not gluconeogenesis.

Example Question #168 : How To Find Synthesis Of Data In Biology

In contrast to prokaryotes, eukaryotes have membrane-bound organelles that allow their cell(s) to compartmentalize different cellular functions. These different functions, which occur only within membrane-bound organelles, include the synthesis and breakdown of different macronutrients fatty acids and proteins. Other processes like glycolysis (the breakdown of carbohydrates) and nucleic acid breakdown can occur outside membrane-bound organelles. Synthesizing different macronutrients is known as anabolism, while breaking down these same nutrients into Adenosine Tri-Phosphate (ATP) is called catabolism.

Macronutrient anabolism and catabolism are balanced by the supply of available energy. In the fed state, where a high concentration of sugar is dissolved in your blood stream, the body prefers to use glucose as its energy source through a pathway called glycolysis. When the supply of glucose in the blood runs low, however, the liver is able to synthesize new glucose in a process called gluconeogenesis. In gluconeogenesis, oxaloacetate, the product of another cycle called the Krebs Cycle is used as the starting point to run glycolysis in reverse, making a new glucose molecule. When these precursors needed to initiate gluconeogenesis run low, the body then turns to the catabolism of proteins and free fatty acids.

Proteins, composed of strands of amino acids, are broken down to generate ATP and oxaloacetate. People who have not eaten for an extended period of time experience low muscle mass due to catabolism of skeletal muscle proteins. Only after available protein is broken down does beta oxidation of free fatty acids begin.

Beta oxidation uses free fatty acids floating in the blood to generate the greatest amount of ATP per gram of starting material of any of the macronutrients. Carried out by enzymes called lipases, beta oxidation splits a long fatty acid chain into two carbon units called acetyl-CoA. Per acetyl-CoA that enters the Krebs Cycle, three NADH and one FADHare produced that enter the Electron Transport Chain to drive ATP production. 1 NADH molecule can generate 3 ATP, while 1 FADH2 molecule can generate 2 ATP. Lipases continue to cleave acetyl-COA units off the parent lipid chain until it either produces its last acetyl-CoA molecule or ends in a 3 carbon molecule called propyl-CoA. Propyl-CoA can further undergo catabolism to yield one final acetyl-CoA molecule.

An 8-carbon free fatty acid could be expected to produce how many FADH2

Possible Answers:

9

8

2

4

Correct answer:

4

Explanation:

An 8-Carbon chain would give 4 acetyl-CoA according to the last paragraph. 4 acetyl-CoA could then give 1 FADHper acetyl-Coa, for a total of 4 from the entire molecule. 

Example Question #169 : How To Find Synthesis Of Data In Biology

In contrast to prokaryotes, eukaryotes have membrane-bound organelles that allow their cell(s) to compartmentalize different cellular functions. These different functions, which occur only within membrane-bound organelles, include the synthesis and breakdown of different macronutrients fatty acids and proteins. Other processes like glycolysis (the breakdown of carbohydrates) and nucleic acid breakdown can occur outside membrane-bound organelles. Synthesizing different macronutrients is known as anabolism, while breaking down these same nutrients into Adenosine Tri-Phosphate (ATP) is called catabolism.

Macronutrient anabolism and catabolism are balanced by the supply of available energy. In the fed state, where a high concentration of sugar is dissolved in your blood stream, the body prefers to use glucose as its energy source through a pathway called glycolysis. When the supply of glucose in the blood runs low, however, the liver is able to synthesize new glucose in a process called gluconeogenesis. In gluconeogenesis, oxaloacetate, the product of another cycle called the Krebs Cycle is used as the starting point to run glycolysis in reverse, making a new glucose molecule. When these precursors needed to initiate gluconeogenesis run low, the body then turns to the catabolism of proteins and free fatty acids.

Proteins, composed of strands of amino acids, are broken down to generate ATP and oxaloacetate. People who have not eaten for an extended period of time experience low muscle mass due to catabolism of skeletal muscle proteins. Only after available protein is broken down does beta oxidation of free fatty acids begin.

Beta oxidation uses free fatty acids floating in the blood to generate the greatest amount of ATP per gram of starting material of any of the macronutrients. Carried out by enzymes called lipases, beta oxidation splits a long fatty acid chain into two carbon units called acetyl-CoA. Per acetyl-CoA that enters the Krebs Cycle, three NADH and one FADHare produced that enter the Electron Transport Chain to drive ATP production. 1 NADH molecule can generate 3 ATP, while 1 FADH2 molecule can generate 2 ATP. Lipases continue to cleave acetyl-COA units off the parent lipid chain until it either produces its last acetyl-CoA molecule or ends in a 3 carbon molecule called propyl-CoA. Propyl-CoA can further undergo catabolism to yield one final acetyl-CoA molecule.

How many ATP is the body able to produce from a 4-carbon free fatty acid?

Possible Answers:

32

22

18

4

Correct answer:

22

Explanation:

In order to answer this question, we need to divide the 4-Carbon fatty acid down into its components. We can see that 2 acetyl-CoA would be produced from the 4-carbon chain, giving a total of 6 NADH and 2 FADH2. From this we gain 3 ATP per NADH (18 ATP so far) and 2 ATP per FADH(4 ATP additional). Our total ATP generation comes to 22 ATP.

Example Question #451 : Biology

Population growth models are used to compile data and determine whether a population is in a state of growth or decline. The -axis of each of the following graphs of different population models represents the age of the population.  Bars then represent the percentage of the population that lies in the given range, which is presented on the -axis of each graph. Furthermore, the graphs are broken into male and female sides. A population that is in a state of decline will have a higher percentage of aging and therefore non-reproducing individuals. A population that is in a state of growth will have a higher percentage of younger individuals ready to reproduce and add to the numbers of the population. A population is in a steady state if the aging and young populations share similar percentages.

Growth_models

Which population model depicts a population that is in equilibrium?

Possible Answers:

Model 2

Model 1

None of the models depict a population that is in equilibrium.

Model 3

Correct answer:

Model 3

Explanation:

Model 3 depicts a population that is in equilibrium. The base of the model takes up the same amount of space as the top of the model. This indicates that as members of this population pass away, the younger members of the population can keep the size of the population steady by reproducing.

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