ACT Science : How to find synthesis of data in biology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for ACT Science

varsity tutors app store varsity tutors android store varsity tutors amazon store varsity tutors ibooks store

Example Questions

Example Question #291 : Biology

Use the following diagram to answer questions 8–12:

Enzyme_activity_chart

What conditions (temperature and pH) are optimal for Enzyme B to function?

Possible Answers:

60C; pH = 5

60C; pH = 9

45C; pH = 9

45C; pH = 5

Correct answer:

60C; pH = 9

Explanation:

The vertices for the graphs of Enzyme B occur at 60C and pH 9, indicating the optimal conditions.

Example Question #11 : How To Find Synthesis Of Data In Biology

Use the following diagram to answer questions 8–12:Enzyme_activity_chart

Which enzyme is more likely to function within the body?

Possible Answers:

Both Enzymes

Enzyme A

Enzyme B

Too little information

Correct answer:

Enzyme A

Explanation:

The temperature of the human body is approximately 37C. At this temperature, Enzyme A has an activity of 0.6 (or 60%) while Enzyme B's activity is appproximately 0. Enzyme A works at a slightly acidic pH, suggesting that the enzyme would function in the esophagus or intestines.

Example Question #293 : Biology

Use the following diagram to answer questions 8–12:

Enzyme_activity_chart

 

An experiment requires that both Ezyme A and Enzyme B are used simultaneously. What conditions should be used?

Possible Answers:

55C; pH = 6

55C; pH = 9

55C; pH = 5

It is impossible to use both Enzymes A and B together; therefore, another enzyme or a sequential reaction will be required.

Correct answer:

It is impossible to use both Enzymes A and B together; therefore, another enzyme or a sequential reaction will be required.

Explanation:

Because there is little overlap in the pH in which the enzymes function, it would be nearly impossible to use both enzymes simultaneously. While there is a non-zero enzyme activity for both enzymes at pH6, the activity is so low that any reaction would be too inefficient for functional use.

Example Question #294 : Biology

Use the following diagram to answer questions 8–12:

Enzyme_activity_chart

Which enzyme works most efficiently under basic conditions?

Possible Answers:

Both enzymes

Enzyme A

Too little information

Enzyme B

Correct answer:

Enzyme B

Explanation:

Basic conditions indicate that the optimal pH is greater than 7 (acidic conditions are less than 7). Enzyme B is most functional at pH 9, suggesting it works most efficienty in basic conditions.

Example Question #295 : Biology

A new drug is in its clinical trial phase. The graph below shows the data for participants sleep patterns before medication use and then after using the medication for three months. Series 1 shows the average hours slept a night for each participant prior to medication. Series 2 shows the average hours slept a night for each participant after three months of use. The average hours slept a night was obtained by recording sleep every night for one month, and then finding the average. Patients one through five took a placebo pil, not the actual Moonlight medication. Note: The y-axis is measured in hours slept a night, while the x-axis lists each anonymous patient numerically.

 

 

Varsitypic2

 

 

A separate experiment was performed that concluded patients taking Moonlight had an increase in the amount of REM cycles in a given night. Patients also reported feeling better rested. How does this experiment impact the results of the experiment described above? 

Possible Answers:

Patients in the initial experiment should report feeling better rested. 

The patients in the initial experiment should have an increase in the amount of REM cycles a night after using the medication. 

The results of the experiment testing REM void the results of the initial experiment. 

Patients taking the medication in the initial experiment should have on average the same amount of REM cycles as the patients in the second experiment. 

None of the answers listed

Correct answer:

None of the answers listed

Explanation:

None of the answers are correct because the experiment does not have REM sleep has a measured factor; therefore no conclusions can be drawn. 

Example Question #296 : Biology

Scientists studied a species of termites and looked at their foraging habitats across the United States. The termite’s population in a given tree was measured by the level of decomposition within a tree due to the termites eating the bark. The experiment also kept track of the level of shade tolerance for each species of tree. For the species of trees in this experiment, shade tolerance fell into two main categorizes- shade tolerant (ST) and intermediate shade (IS). Lastly, they recorded the average amount of rainfall in that given month for the species location being observed. The chart below summarizes the data. Scientists hypothesized that the level of decomposition would be highest in tree species with a higher average rainfall. In addition, they hypothesized trees allowing more shade would allow for more termites, and in turn more decomposition. 

 

 

Tsuga canadensis

Morus rubra

Pinus

strobus

Acer rubrum

Arbutus

menziesii

Quercus

lobata

Juniperus

scopulorum

Decomposition

(in ccm)

2.38

3.21

1.01

.970

2.89

1.31

4.03

Shade tolerance

ST

ST

IS

IS

ST

IS

ST

Average rainfall

47.27

50.89

43.26

41.65

46.87

44.98

52.75

Do the results of species Acer rubrum weaken or strengthen the hypothesis? 

Possible Answers:

It strengthens the hypothesis by having a high average rainfall and a high amount of decomposition. 

It weakens the hypothesis by having the lowest average rainfall and the highest amount of decomposition. In addition, the Acer rubrum has an intermediate shade tolerance, which also supports the hypothesis. 

It weakens the hypothesis by having a high average rainfall and a high amount of decomposition. 

It strengthens the hypothesis by having a high shade tolerance.

It strengthens the hypothesis by having the lowest average rainfall and lowest amount of decomposition. In addition, the Acer rubrum has an intermediate shade tolerance, which also supports the hypothesis. 

Correct answer:

It strengthens the hypothesis by having the lowest average rainfall and lowest amount of decomposition. In addition, the Acer rubrum has an intermediate shade tolerance, which also supports the hypothesis. 

Explanation:

The Acer rubrum has the lowest average rainfall (41.65)  and lowest amout of decomposition (.970). The hypothesis states that a higher rainfall average will result in a higher level of decomposition. Therefore, lower rainfall averages should result in lower levels of decomposition. In addition, the Acer rubrum has an intermediate shade tolerance, which also supports the hypothesis that more shade tolerance will result in higher decomposition amounts. 

Example Question #297 : Biology

Genes are hereditary units that are responsible for the phenotypes of an organism. Genes are the directions for the body. Genetic change exists when genes are altered from their previous form. Genes are made up of DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid. DNA is made up of four bases- adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine. Genetic change can result from a variety of factors. Both scientists mentioned below agree on this basic information about genes. However, the scientists do not agree on the primary driving force behind genetic change.

 

Scientist 1

A mutation is a permanent change in the sequence of the DNA of a gene. There are several types of mutations—point mutations, silent mutations, frame mutations, and nonsense mutations. Mutations are very important because proteins are synthesized by reading the DNA sequence. If the DNA sequence is changed, the proteins transcribed from the DNA will be different proteins. Mutations directly and substantially change the genes by changing the sequence of the four bases. Therefore, mutations are the main factor when looking at genetic change.

 

 

Scientist 2 

Sexual reproduction is the biggest contributor to genetic change. New combinations of genes are created with every random union of a sperm and egg. During division of the sex cells, or meiosis, crossing over can occur. Crossing over describes the situation when the genes from one parent’s chromosome are traded with genes from the other parent’s chromosome. This results in new combinations of genes. Lastly, a phenomenon called independent assortment results from sexual reproduction. Independent assortment is the random assortment of chromosomes during reproduction. Therefore, by its random nature, sexual reproduction is the largest contributor to genetic change.

When Scientist 1 states that mutations "change the genes by changing the sequence of the four bases," the word "bases" is referring to what? 

Possible Answers:

the four forms of deoxyribonucleic acid

adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine

the four main forms of a given allele

the four points where crossing-over occurs

point mutations, silent mutations, frame mutations, and nonsense mutations

Correct answer:

adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine

Explanation:

Paragraph one lists the four bases as adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine.

Example Question #291 : Act Science

Mitochondria make 90% of the energy needed by the body to sustain life. The Mitochondrial Free Radical Theory of Aging (MFRTA) theorizes that individuals who live longest produce fewer mitochondrial oxygen reactive species than individuals that have a shorter life span. Therefore, lifespan will increase if fewer mtROS are produced, and lifespan will decrease if more mtROS are produced. An experiment was done to test this theory, and the results are shown in the chart below. Four test groups of flies were involved, two groups consisted of females, and two groups consisted of males.

 

 

Test group 1

Test group 2

 

Test group 3

 

Test group 4

 # of mtROS

 3.9

 2.5

 3.2

 2.7

 Lifespan

110 days

120 days

95 days

89 days

An independent experiment concluded that mtROS amount had a less significant effect in male test groups than in female test groups. Assuming these results were accurate and test group 1 was a male test group, which other test group is also a male test group?

Possible Answers:

Test group 2 or test group 4

Test group 2 

Test group 4

Test group 3  

Test group 2 or test group 3

Correct answer:

Test group 4

Explanation:

The second male test group would have to show that mtROS amount did not drastically change the lifespan. Test group 4 (2.7) has a lifespan of 89 days, which is a lower mtROS's amount than test group 1, but also a shorter lifespan. This would show that the mtROS amount had less of an impact. Further, assuming test group 1 and test group 4 were the two male groups, it would leave group 2 and group 3 to be female groups. Comparing group 2 and group 3, the data suggests that mtROS amount does have an impact on lifespan. This is because test group 2 has fewer mtROS's and a longer lifespan, while group 3 has more mtROS's and a shorter lifespan.

Example Question #299 : Biology

The significant increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide since pre-industrial levels can be seen in the world’s oceans which absorb the CO2 and in turn undergo changes in chemistry. The consequences of increased COinclude acidification of seawater and a decrease in carbonate ion (CO32-) concentration. 

Changes in seawater chemistry affect marine organisms. The early life stages of invertebrates, such as squid, may be particularly vulnerable to changes in carbon dioxide levels. Acting as both predator and prey, squid are a significant component of marine ecosystems.   For example, fish and sea birds, such as tuna and albatross, are dependent on squid as a source of prey. Furthermore, the fishing industry is impacted by the health of squid populations. California fisheries produce the majority of market squid.

In order to determine how increased levels of carbon dioxide affect the development of squid, eggs were hatched in two different conditions: normal (380 µatm) and elevated (2100 µatm) levels of CO2. The time to hatch and the size of the larval mantle (the anatomical feature that includes the body wall and fins) were measured and recorded. Two trials were conducted for each carbon dioxide concentration.

 

Charts
Graphs

 

According to the passage, which of these are most directly  affected by changes in marine carbon dioxide levels?

Possible Answers:

Humans

Seabirds

Invertebrates

Tuna

Correct answer:

Invertebrates

Explanation:

Although the passage indicates that humans, fish and seabirds are all impacted by the health of squid populations, the squid themselves are directly impacted by marine carbon dioxide levels:  "The early life stages of invertebrates, such as squid, may be particularly vulnerable to changes in carbon dioxide levels."

Example Question #11 : How To Find Synthesis Of Data In Biology

The significant increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide since pre-industrial levels can be seen in the world’s oceans which absorb the CO2 and in turn undergo changes in chemistry. The consequences of increased CO2 include acidification of seawater and a decrease in carbonate ion (CO32-) concentration. 

Changes in seawater chemistry affect marine organisms. The early life stages of invertebrates, such as squid, may be particularly vulnerable to changes in carbon dioxide levels. Acting as both predator and prey, squid are a significant component of marine ecosystems.   For example, fish and sea birds, such as tuna and albatross, are dependent on squid as a source of prey. Furthermore, the fishing industry is impacted by the health of squid populations. California fisheries produce the majority of market squid.

In order to determine how increased levels of carbon dioxide affect the development of squid, eggs were hatched in two different conditions: normal (380 µatm) and elevated (2100 µatm) levels of CO2. The time to hatch and the size of the larval mantle (the anatomical feature that includes the body wall and fins) were measured and recorded. Two trials were conducted for each carbon dioxide concentration.

 

Charts
Graphs

 

In this experiment, which of the following most likely affects squid-egg hatching?

Possible Answers:

Salinity of water

Temperature of water

pH of water

Amount of water

Correct answer:

pH of water

Explanation:

The data shows that carbon dioxide concentration affects egg hatching.  The task is to identify which variable correlates with carbon dioxide concentration.  Looking at the water chemistry table, it is clear that pH is the only measurement that varies between COconcentrations.  (Salinity and temperature are similar, and the amount of water is not mentioned.)  

Learning Tools by Varsity Tutors