AP Latin : Context-Based Meaning of Words and Phrases in Prose Passages

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Latin

varsity tutors app store varsity tutors android store

Example Questions

2 Next →

Example Question #11 : Context Based Meaning Of Words And Phrases In Prose Passages

Si quis, iudices, forte nunc adsit ignarus legum, iudiciorum, consuetudinis nostrae, miretur profecto, quae sit tanta atrocitas huiusce causae, quod diebus festis ludisque publicis, omnibus forensibus negotiis intermissis unum hoc iudicium exerceatur, nec dubitet, quin tanti facinoris reus arguatur, ut eo neglecto civitas stare non possit; idem cum audiat esse legem, quae de seditiosis consceleratisque civibus, qui armati senatum obsederint, magistratibus vim attulerint, rem publicam oppugnarint, cotidie quaeri iubeat: legem non improbet, crimen quod versetur in iudicio, requirat; cum audiat nullum facinus, nullam audaciam, nullam vim in iudicium vocari, sed adulescentem illustri ingenio, industria, gratia accusari ab eius filio, quem ipse in iudicium et vocet et vocarit, oppugnari autem opibus meretriciis: [Atratini] illius pietatem non reprehendat, muliebrem libidinem comprimendam putet, vos laboriosos existimet, quibus otiosis ne in communi quidem otio liceat esse.

The word "forte" should be translated __________.

Possible Answers:

by chance

at this moment

powerful

with strength

Correct answer:

by chance

Explanation:

The word "forte" as used here comes from "fors, fortis," which means chance/luck. The context of the rest of the clause indicates that speaker is talking about possibilities. There has been no mention to this point of anything that would make strength and appropriate translation. "Forte" should be translated by chance.

(Passage adapted from Cicero's Pro Caelio, Section 1(56 BCE))

Example Question #12 : Context Based Meaning Of Words And Phrases In Prose Passages

Ac mihi quidem videtur, iudices, hic introitus defensionis adulescentiae M. Caeli maxime convenire, ut ad ea, quae accusatores deformandi huius causa, detrahendae spoliandaeque dignitatis gratia dixerunt, primum respondeam. Obiectus est pater varie, quod aut parum splendidus ipse aut parum pie tractatus a filio diceretur. De dignitate M. Caelius notis ac maioribus natu et sine mea oratione et tacitus facile ipse respondet; quibus autem propter senectutem, quod iam diu minus in foro nobiscumque versatur, non aeque est cognitus, ii sic habeant, quaecumque in equite Romano dignitas esse possit, quae certe potest esse maxima, eam semper in M. Caelio habitam esse summam hodieque haberi non solum a suis, sed etiam ab omnibus, quibus potuerit aliqua de causa esse notus.

The word "hic" should be translated as __________.

Possible Answers:

this

now

here

he

Correct answer:

this

Explanation:

The word "hic" comes from "hic, haec, hoc,"which usually means this. Given the right context, "hic" can mean here (to indicate direction) or he/she/it (if used substantively). Since it is being used to describe "introitus," this is the most appropriate translation.

(Passage adapted from Cicero's Pro Caelio, Section 2 (56 BCE))

Example Question #51 : Prose

Si quis, iudices, forte nunc adsit ignarus legum, iudiciorum, consuetudinis nostrae, miretur profecto, quae sit tanta atrocitas huiusce causae, quod diebus festis ludisque publicis, omnibus forensibus negotiis intermissis unum hoc iudicium exerceatur, nec dubitet, quin tanti facinoris reus arguatur, ut eo neglecto civitas stare non possit; idem cum audiat esse legem, quae de seditiosis consceleratisque civibus, qui armati senatum obsederint, magistratibus vim attulerint, rem publicam oppugnarint, cotidie quaeri iubeat: legem non improbet, crimen quod versetur in iudicio, requirat; cum audiat nullum facinus, nullam audaciam, nullam vim in iudicium vocari, sed adulescentem illustri ingenio, industria, gratia accusari ab eius filio, quem ipse in iudicium et vocet et vocarit, oppugnari autem opibus meretriciis: [Atratini] illius pietatem non reprehendat, muliebrem libidinem comprimendam putet, vos laboriosos existimet, quibus otiosis ne in communi quidem otio liceat esse.

How should "ut" be translated?

Possible Answers:

So that

As

That

When

Correct answer:

That

Explanation:

"Ut" is being used in a result clause. The other side of the argument argues that the speaker's client did the crime because he was rejected. In other words, as a result of the rejection, he committed this crime.

(Passage adapted from Cicero's Pro Caelio, Section 1 (56 BCE))

Example Question #14 : Context Based Meaning Of Words And Phrases In Prose Passages

Si quis, iudices, forte nunc adsit ignarus legum, iudiciorum, consuetudinis nostrae, miretur profecto, quae sit tanta atrocitas huiusce causae, quod diebus festis ludisque publicis, omnibus forensibus negotiis intermissis unum hoc iudicium exerceatur, nec dubitet, quin tanti facinoris reus arguatur, ut eo neglecto civitas stare non possit; idem cum audiat esse legem, quae de seditiosis consceleratisque civibus, qui armati senatum obsederint, magistratibus vim attulerint, rem publicam oppugnarint, cotidie quaeri iubeat: legem non improbet, crimen quod versetur in iudicio, requirat; cum audiat nullum facinus, nullam audaciam, nullam vim in iudicium vocari, sed adulescentem illustri ingenio, industria, gratia accusari ab eius filio, quem ipse in iudicium et vocet et vocarit, oppugnari autem opibus meretriciis: [Atratini] illius pietatem non reprehendat, muliebrem libidinem comprimendam putet, vos laboriosos existimet, quibus otiosis ne in communi quidem otio liceat esse.

How should "cum" be translated?

Possible Answers:

Since

Which

When

With

Correct answer:

When

Explanation:

Since "cum" is not accompanied by an ablative case word in this clause, it must be in a cum clause. Furthermore, the presence of the word "audiat" in the subjunctive mood indicates that it must be a circumstantial or causal cum clause. Indeed, the context of this passage indicates that the author is now describing the circumstances of a particular event. "Cum" here is best translated as when.

(Passage adapted from Cicero's Pro Caelio, Section 1 (56 BCE))

Example Question #15 : Context Based Meaning Of Words And Phrases In Prose Passages

Si quis, iudices, forte nunc adsit ignarus legum, iudiciorum, consuetudinis nostrae, miretur profecto, quae sit tanta atrocitas huiusce causae, quod diebus festis ludisque publicis, omnibus forensibus negotiis intermissis unum hoc iudicium exerceatur, nec dubitet, quin tanti facinoris reus arguatur, ut eo neglecto civitas stare non possit; idem cum audiat esse legem, quae de seditiosis consceleratisque civibus, qui armati senatum obsederint, magistratibus vim attulerint, rem publicam oppugnarint, cotidie quaeri iubeat: legem non improbet, crimen quod versetur in iudicio, requirat; cum audiat nullum facinus, nullam audaciam, nullam vim in iudicium vocari, sed adulescentem illustri ingenio, industria, gratia accusari ab eius filio, quem ipse in iudicium et vocet et vocarit, oppugnari autem opibus meretriciis: [Atratini] illius pietatem non reprehendat, muliebrem libidinem comprimendam putet, vos laboriosos existimet, quibus otiosis ne in communi quidem otio liceat esse.

How should the word "in" be translated?

Possible Answers:

Against

In

Concerning

Into

Correct answer:

Against

Explanation:

While the word "in" usually means into when paired with the accusative case, it can also mean against. You see great examples of this in Roman court cases. For instance, Cicero's Pro Caelio vs. In Verrem. Since the speaker has thus far been talking about crimes, attacking, fights, and so on, it makes more sense to translate "in" as against since the speaker is talking about the other side's opposition to the law.

(Passage adapted from Cicero's Pro Caelio, Section 1 (56 BCE))

Example Question #16 : Context Based Meaning Of Words And Phrases In Prose Passages

Ac mihi quidem videtur, iudices, hic introitus defensionis adulescentiae M. Caeli maxime convenire, ut ad ea, quae accusatores deformandi huius causa, detrahendae spoliandaeque dignitatis gratia dixerunt, primum respondeam. Obiectus est pater varie, quod aut parum splendidus ipse aut parum pie tractatus a filio diceretur. De dignitate M. Caelius notis ac maioribus natu et sine mea oratione et tacitus facile ipse respondet; quibus autem propter senectutem, quod iam diu minus in foro nobiscumque versatur, non aeque est cognitus, ii sic habeant, quaecumque in equite Romano dignitas esse possit, quae certe potest esse maxima, eam semper in M. Caelio habitam esse summam hodieque haberi non solum a suis, sed etiam ab omnibus, quibus potuerit aliqua de causa esse notus.

The word "versatur" should be translated as ____________.

Possible Answers:

it is considered

it lives

it is turned about

it turns

Correct answer:

it is considered

Explanation:

The word "versatur" comes from "verso, versare, versavi, versatus," which means to turn around. It is common, however, to use this word to mean to consider when talking about decision-making. Here, where decisions and laws are being discussed - not to mention the forum, where many important discussions and speeches take place in Rome, the most appropriate translation would be it is considered.

(Passage adapted from Cicero's Pro Caelio, Section 2 (56 BCE))

Example Question #17 : Context Based Meaning Of Words And Phrases In Prose Passages

Ac mihi quidem videtur, iudices, hic introitus defensionis adulescentiae M. Caeli maxime convenire, ut ad ea, quae accusatores deformandi huius causa, detrahendae spoliandaeque dignitatis gratia dixerunt, primum respondeam. Obiectus est pater varie, quod aut parum splendidus ipse aut parum pie tractatus a filio diceretur. De dignitate M. Caelius notis ac maioribus natu et sine mea oratione et tacitus facile ipse respondet; quibus autem propter senectutem, quod iam diu minus in foro nobiscumque versatur, non aeque est cognitus, ii sic habeant, quaecumque in equite Romano dignitas esse possit, quae certe potest esse maxima, eam semper in M. Caelio habitam esse summam hodieque haberi non solum a suis, sed etiam ab omnibus, quibus potuerit aliqua de causa esse notus.

In the underlined portion, we learn that ___________.

Possible Answers:

Caelius has destroyed something

Caelius is being accused of stealing something

Caelius is claiming that the prosecutors are slandering him

the prosecutors are claiming that Caelius wants to slander their client

Correct answer:

the prosecutors are claiming that Caelius wants to slander their client

Explanation:

In the first sentence, we learn that the accusers claim that Caelius only wants to slander the name of their client. The sentence translates as: But it seems to me, judges, that this introduction of the defense of the youth, Marcus Caelius is very appropriate because, according to she, who the accusers say must discredit, must drag down, must ruin her popularity and dignity; first, let me respond.

(Passage adapted from Cicero's Pro Caelio, Section 2 (56 BCE))

Example Question #18 : Context Based Meaning Of Words And Phrases In Prose Passages

Ac mihi quidem videtur, iudices, hic introitus defensionis adulescentiae M. Caeli maxime convenire, ut ad ea, quae accusatores deformandi huius causa, detrahendae spoliandaeque dignitatis gratia dixerunt, primum respondeam. Obiectus est pater varie, quod aut parum splendidus ipse aut parum pie tractatus a filio diceretur. De dignitate M. Caelius notis ac maioribus natu et sine mea oratione et tacitus facile ipse respondet; quibus autem propter senectutem, quod iam diu minus in foro nobiscumque versatur, non aeque est cognitus, ii sic habeant, quaecumque in equite Romano dignitas esse possit, quae certe potest esse maxima, eam semper in M. Caelio habitam esse summam hodieque haberi non solum a suis, sed etiam ab omnibus, quibus potuerit aliqua de causa esse notus.

How should "ut" be translated?

Possible Answers:

As

So that

That

How

Correct answer:

So that

Explanation:

The word "ut" should be translated as so that because it is being used in a purpose clause. This clause is being used by the prosecutors of the speaker's client to explain why the client committed the crime. Furthermore, this purpose clause is followed by another statement of purpose, this time using a gerund + causa in order to indicate the purpose: "deformandi causa."

(Passage adapted from Cicero's Pro Caelio, Section 2 (56 BCE))

2 Next →
Learning Tools by Varsity Tutors