AP Human Geography : War & Terrorism

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Human Geography

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Example Questions

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Example Question #11 : War & Terrorism

The Boer War of 1899-1902 was primarily waged over __________.

Possible Answers:

British attempts to Christianize the population of Southern Africa

None of these answers is correct.

access to and control of precious metals and resources

disagreements between the British and the Germans over trading rights with South Africa and Tanzania

access to petroleum deposits in the South African interior

Correct answer:

access to and control of precious metals and resources

Explanation:

The Boer people were settlers who arrived in what is now called South Africa in the seventeenth century. Following the arrival of the British in the nineteenth century the Boers migrated north to avoid direct control by the British government; however shortly thereafter gold and diamonds were discovered in unprecedented quantities in the territory of the Boer Republic. This led to a brutal war of suppression being waged by the British army against the Boer Republic that ended with the Cape Colony and the Boer Republic being combined into the Union of South Africa -under British control.

Example Question #111 : Political Organization Of Space

The Franco-Prussian War, and to a slightly lesser degree, World War I were both caused by hostility and territorial disagreement between which two nations?

Possible Answers:

Austria and Italy

Austria and Germany

France and Spain

France and Germany

France and Italy

Correct answer:

France and Germany

Explanation:

The biggest clue here is the name “Franco-Prussian.” “Franco” means relating to France, of France and “Prussia” was the largest German state of the nineteenth century (before German unification in 1871). Both the Franco-Prussian War, fought in 1870-1, and World War I, fought between 1914-1918 were caused or partially caused by territorial animosity and disputes between France and Germany.

Example Question #113 : Political Organization Of Space

There are many conflicts in the world today caused by ethnic competition. Many wars and acts of terrorism are labeled as an "Ethnic Cleansing" or a "Genocide". Sometimes these two terms are mistaken to mean the same thing although they are not always the same. 

How is a "Genocide" is different from an "Ethnic Cleansing"?

Possible Answers:

None of these correctly differentiates between "Ethnic Cleansing" and "Genocide."

An "Ethnic Cleansing" refers to a war caused only by a racial bias while a "Genocide" can be in reference to any act of violence due to any genre of biases. 

A "Genocide" must number more than 1 million deaths but an "Ethnic Cleansing" does not have to reach any particular death toll quota. 

A "Genocide" can include mass killings for reasons other than ethnicity while an "Ethnic Cleansing" is a mass killing solely based on ethnic conflict. 

An "Ethnic Cleansing" can be used in reference to the Holocaust of WWII as the Jewish ethnicity was attacked, but the term "Genocide" can not be applied to this historic event because it does not specify the ethnic conflict.  

Correct answer:

A "Genocide" can include mass killings for reasons other than ethnicity while an "Ethnic Cleansing" is a mass killing solely based on ethnic conflict. 

Explanation:

Both terms refer to an event in which there was a mass killing and both can be in relation to an ethnic conflict. However, the term "Ethnic Cleansing" is more specific than the term "Genocide".  An "Ethnic Cleansing" is when a people group commits mass expulsion or mass killing of a particular ethnic group whom they do not want to exist either in a particular region or in the world as a whole.  A "Genocide" can be an "Ethnic Cleansing" but it can also be a mass killing for reasons other than ethnicity. A "Genocide" can refer to a people group committing a mass killing of people within their same ethnicity which is not considered ethnic conflict but a different type of conflict such as religious conflict or perhaps economic conflict.  

Here is an explanation how each of the incorrect answers are incorrect: 

1.) There is no statistic that makes the difference between labeling a mass killing event as a "Genocide" or "Ethnic Cleansing". Both have a high death toll. 

2.) Ethnicity and Race are not interchangeable terms. Ethnicity is someone's ethnic background, i.e. where their ethnic heritage is from. We often group that with a nationality, although that is also a slightly different term.  Race, on the other hand, means the color of your skin. You may have the same color of skin as someone from a different ethnic background, or you can have a different color of skin as someone from the same ethnic background.  

3.) Both terms, "Ethnic Cleansing" and "Genocide" can be used to explain the Holocaust of WWII. It can be classified with the more general term of "Genocide" as it was a mass killing. Because about 6 million Jews were killed with the purpose of removing them from a particular region, if not the world as a whole, it can also be more specifically classified as an "Ethnic Cleansing."

Example Question #11 : War & Terrorism

Often conflict is brought about by rulers who try to abuse their power. This can happen regardless of whether a ruler was elected, born into royalty, or forcibly took their position. This often happens when an Autocratic government is controling a nation. 

What is an Autocratic Government? 

Possible Answers:

A government run by a parliament with a ruler who inherited the position through birth. 

A government run by a prime minister who is elected by the people.

A government run according to the interests of the ruler rather than the people. 

A government run by one King who was elected by their constituents. 

A government run according to the interests of the ruling class rather than the monarch. 

Correct answer:

A government run according to the interests of the ruler rather than the people. 

Explanation:

Autocracies often face political strife due to being run according to the interests of the ruler rather than hearing and fulfilling the needs and desires of the people.  Whether the ruler inherits or is elected into their office, they rule in a way that does not cater to the needs of their people. 

Here is the explanation for why the incorrect answers are incorrect: 

1.) A King is not elected, they inherit the throne. 

2.) A government with a Parliament has a process of election in which the Parliament is elected to bring the people's needs and concerns to the governemnt and take them into account. 

3.) While a ruling class may have more influence in how a government runs a country, an autocracy does not necessarily favor the ruling class as a whole and sometimes even goes against the interests of that class. 

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