Human Anatomy and Physiology : Help with Proteins and Signals in the Central Nervous System

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for Human Anatomy and Physiology

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Help With Proteins And Signals In The Central Nervous System

Which of the following neurotransmitters generally has an inhibitory effect on the postsynaptic neuron?

Possible Answers:

GABA

Norepinephrine

Serotonin

Dopamine

Glutamate

Correct answer:

GABA

Explanation:

GABA is the only neurotransmitter to actively suppress the formation of an action potential when binding to the dendrites on the postsynaptic neuron.

Norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, and glutamate have various physiological effects in different regions of the body, but all acts to stimulate the formation of an action potential.

Example Question #1 : Help With Proteins And Signals In The Central Nervous System

Which of the following is not a function of the hypothalamus? 

Possible Answers:

Distributes sensory information to the brain cortex

Temperature regulation

Regulates hunger

All of these are functions of the hypothalamus

Thirst and water balance

Correct answer:

Distributes sensory information to the brain cortex

Explanation:

The hypothalamus has several key functions. It is responsible for regulating thirst and water balance, anterior pituitary control, and posterior pituitary hormone synthesis and release. The hypothalamus also regulates hunger, body temperature, the autonomic nervous system, and sexual responses.

The thalamus is the major relay center for all ascending sensory information (expect smell/olfaction) and distributes sensory information to the appropriate part of the brain cortex.

Example Question #3 : Help With Proteins And Signals In The Central Nervous System

The autonomic nervous system consists of three divisions. 

Which of the following is not a division of the autonomic system?

Possible Answers:

Enteric

Somatic

Sympathetic 

Parasympathetic 

Correct answer:

Somatic

Explanation:

The autonomic nervous system (ANS) consists of a set of pathways to and from the central nervous system (CNS) that innervate and regulate smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glands. The ANS is distinct from the somatic nervous system, which innervates skeletal muscle. The ANS has three divisions the sympathetic, parasympathetic, and enteric nervous systems.

Example Question #2 : Help With Proteins And Signals In The Central Nervous System

Where are cell bodies for preganglionic neurons located?

Possible Answers:

Autonomic ganglia

Central nervous system (CNS)

Effector organs

Paravertebral chain

Correct answer:

Central nervous system (CNS)

Explanation:

Synapses between neurons are made in the autonomic ganglia. Parasympathetic ganglia are located in or near the effector organs, while sympathetic ganglia are located in the paravertebral chain. Preganglionic neurons have their cell bodies in the CNS and synapse in autonomic ganglia. 

Example Question #3 : Help With Proteins And Signals In The Central Nervous System

What enzyme is responsible for removing norepinephrine and epinephrine from the synaptic cleft? 

Possible Answers:

Cholinesterase 

Protease

Lactase 

Monomaine oxidase 

None of these

Correct answer:

Monomaine oxidase 

Explanation:

Norepinephrine and epinephrine are both classified as monoamines. Thus, the enzyme that destroys norepinephrine and epinephrine at the synaptic cleft is monoamine oxidase. Cholinesterase is the enzyme that terminates acetylcholine activity. Lactase is an enzyme that is involved in the breakdown of the sugar lactose. A protease is an enzyme that degrades proteins by breaking peptide bonds found between amino acids. 

Example Question #4 : Help With Proteins And Signals In The Central Nervous System

The electrical impulse that a neuron conveys to other neurons begins at the cone-shaped __________ and travels at high speed along the axon toward the __________.

Possible Answers:

dendrite . . . axon

dendrite . . . cell body

axon . . . dendrite

axon . . . terminal

axon hillock . . . axon terminal

Correct answer:

axon hillock . . . axon terminal

Explanation:

The axon hillock is the last place where membrane potentials are summated before the generation of an action potential. The newly-created action potential travels down the axon to the axon terminal.

Example Question #7 : Help With Proteins And Signals In The Central Nervous System

What is the cell that is responsible for myelination in the central nervous system?

Possible Answers:

schwann cell

glial cell

astrocyte

ependymal cell

oligodendrocyte

Correct answer:

oligodendrocyte

Explanation:

The cell responsible for myelination in the central nervous system is known as the oligodendrocyte. Myelination of neurons in the peripheral nervous system are made possible by Schwann Cells.

 

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