NCLEX-PN : Gastrointestinal Conditions

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for NCLEX-PN

varsity tutors app store varsity tutors android store

Example Questions

Example Question #7 : Causes And Treatments Of Gastrointestinal Conditions

Which of the following bacterial species is responsible for the development of peptic ulcers?

Possible Answers:

Treponema pallidum

Streptococcus faecalis

Helicobacter pylori

Viridans streptococci

Staphylococcus aureus

Correct answer:

Helicobacter pylori

Explanation:

Helicobacter pylori or H. pylori is the bacterial cause of peptic ulcers. Staphylococcus aureus is a bacteria that frequently causes skin infections along with other conditions such as toxic shock syndrome. Streptococcus faecalis is responsible for many urinary tract infections and contracting Viridans streptococci may result in endocarditis. Treponema pallidum bacteria cause syphilis.

Example Question #8 : Causes And Treatments Of Gastrointestinal Conditions

The nurse is caring for a 25-year old-patient diagnosed with a poorly functioning lower esophageal sphincter. The nurse may advise the patient to do which of the following?

Possible Answers:

Avoid whole grains

Avoid alcoholic beverages

Limit water intake

Lay down immediately following meals

Avoid ingestion of antacids

Correct answer:

Avoid alcoholic beverages

Explanation:

Several foods can cause relaxation or irritation of the lower-esophageal sphincter. Alcohol, carbonated beverages, and chocolate are a few examples. Advise the patient to remain upright after meals, to utilize antacids when appropriate, and to practice a balanced diet.

Example Question #9 : Causes And Treatments Of Gastrointestinal Conditions

Which of the following GERD medications works by neutralizing stomach acid? 

Possible Answers:

Omeprazole

Magnesium hydroxide

Famotidine

Pantoprazole

Ranitidine

Correct answer:

Magnesium hydroxide

Explanation:

Magnesium hydroxide is a strong base. It works by neutralizing the acid in the stomach, forming water and magnesium chloride. All other listed medications work to prevent the stomach from over-producing acid, rather than neutralizing the existing acid in the stomach.

Example Question #31 : Gastrointestinal Conditions

Which of the following patients is most at risk for the development of a hiatal hernia?

Possible Answers:

A 30-year-old male professional athlete

An 80-year-old obese woman with alcohol related ascites

A 35 year old pregnant woman with a gastrointestinal tumor

An obese male who smokes cigarettes

An 80-year-old obese male who loads trucks for work

Correct answer:

An 80-year-old obese woman with alcohol related ascites

Explanation:

Advanced age, female sex, obesity, alcohol use, frequent heavy lifting, pregnancy, gastrointestinal tumors, and smoking may increase an individual's risk for the development of a hiatal hernia. The correct scenario represents four risk factors.

Example Question #1192 : Nclex

The nurse cares for a patient with appendicitis. Which of the following positions is best for improving breathing and relieving abdominal pain?

Possible Answers:

Trendelenburg

Side-lying

Fowler’s

Reverse Trendelenburg

Sims'

Correct answer:

Fowler’s

Explanation:

Fowler’s position (head of bed (HOB) elevated 45 degrees) increases comfort, ventilation, circulation, and relieves pressure from the thorax. It would be best for this patient due to the pain experienced by the patient in the abdomen. Sims’ position (halfway between lateral and prone, upper arm flex, lower arm behind patient) is used when a patient is receiving an enema or an examination in the perineal area. Trendelenburg (HOB lowered, feet elevated) is used for patients with hypotension, as it promotes venous return. Reverse Trendelenburg (HOB elevated, feet lowered) is used to promote gastrointestinal problems by minimizing esophageal reflux. Side-lying (patient on side with top leg in front of bottom leg and hip/knee flexed) is used to relieve pressure from the sacrum and is often rotated with patients who are on bedrest.

Example Question #1191 : Nclex

A 35-year-old client is being discharged post hemorrhoidectomy surgery. The nurse is explaining in detail all discharge instructions to be followed for a successful postoperative period. 

The client will need to adhere to which of the following instructions?

Possible Answers:

Avoid pain medications post procedure as they may cause constipation

Take oral pain relievers prior to bowel movement to reduce discomfort

Use of rectal suppositories in place of oral stool softeners

Use of daily enemas to promote frequent bowel movements

Avoid bowel movements until sutures are removed

Correct answer:

Take oral pain relievers prior to bowel movement to reduce discomfort

Explanation:

To prevent pain during a bowel movement post operatively, pain medication is often indicated to help make it more tolerable. Pain medications will need to be given post op and may contribute to constipation, but oral stool softeners and and a high fiber diet can help to avoid the constipation. Rectal suppositories and daily enemas are not needed. Bowel movements should not be delayed nor avoided in the post operative period. 

Example Question #1191 : Nclex

A client is being treated on the medical-surgical unit for pneumonia and has recently developed severe diarrhea. Upon cultures performed it has been determined the client is now carrying Clostridium Difficile (C-diff), and will need to be on special precautions to prevent the spread of this disease. 

All of the following are consistent with the appropriate precautions when dealing with those infected with C. difficile except __________.

Possible Answers:

all healthcare persons interacting with the client will wash their hands with soap and water or alcohol rub prior to contact

hospital rooms and medical equipment that have been used for clients with C. difficile must be disinfected and cleaned thoroughly

healthcare providers, as well as visitors will put on gloves and wear a gown over their clothes while interacting with clients with C. difficile

all persons having direct contact with the client will wear a mask, including healthcare workers and visitors

when possible, client will occupy a private room or share a room with another C. difficile client 

Correct answer:

all persons having direct contact with the client will wear a mask, including healthcare workers and visitors

Explanation:

This client is to be on contact precautions, the wearing of a mask is consistent with airborne precautions which is not necessary for C-diff. All other choices are appropriate for contact precautions. 

Example Question #1191 : Nclex

Overdose of which of the following over-the-counter medications is one of the leading causes of liver failure in the United States?

Possible Answers:

Diphenhydramine 

Loratadine

Cimetidine

Acetaminophen

Correct answer:

Acetaminophen

Explanation:

Acetaminophen causes more liver failure in the United States than viral hepatitis, making it one of the most common causes of liver-related emergency room visits. It causes approximately 78,000 emergency room visits and 150 deaths due to liver failure each year. None of the other medications listed are associated with liver failure.

Example Question #1192 : Nclex

The majority of hepatic infections are with which of the following type of microbe?

Possible Answers:

Fungi

Viruses

Prions

Bacteria

Correct answer:

Viruses

Explanation:

The majority of liver infections are viral in nature. Hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C are the most frequent agents of infection, with hepatitis C being the leading cause of liver transplants. Bacterial infections in the liver most commonly take the form of an abscess. Fungal hepatitis and prion infection of the liver are not generally seen.

Example Question #1197 : Nclex

Which of the following viruses can cause hepatitis?

Possible Answers:

Yellow fever

Cytomegalovirus

All of these

Epstein Barr

Correct answer:

All of these

Explanation:

There are multiple viruses that can cause hepatitis other than hepatitis A, B, or C. Among these are Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, and yellow fever. 

Learning Tools by Varsity Tutors