AP Biology : Understanding Neural Cells

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Biology

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Example Questions

Example Question #611 : Ap Biology

Which of the following is not a part of the central nervous system (CNS)?

Possible Answers:

Spinal cord

White and grey matter

All of these

Brain

Correct answer:

All of these

Explanation:

The CNS includes the brain (including white matter and gray matter) and the spinal cord. The CNS coordinates and controls all activity within the body.

Example Question #106 : Types Of Cells And Tissues

Ganglia are a part of which of the following subunits of the nervous system?

Possible Answers:

Somatic nervous system

All of these

Autonomic nervous system

Central nervous system

Correct answer:

Autonomic nervous system

Explanation:

Ganglia are clusters of nerve cells that are a part of the autonomic nervous system, which controls the function of organs.

Example Question #107 : Types Of Cells And Tissues

Which of the following best describes the structure of the colloquial term “nerve”?

Possible Answers:

A protein

Glycogen

None of these

A neuron

Correct answer:

A neuron

Explanation:

The colloquial term “nerve” refers to a neuron—a nerve cell—that can transmit electrical signals throughout the human body. Nerves can be grouped into two categories: motor neurons and sensory neurons.

Example Question #108 : Types Of Cells And Tissues

Which of the following is not a tissue within the peripheral nervous system (PNS)?

Possible Answers:

Ganglia

Nerves

Certain cranial nerves

Spinal cord

Correct answer:

Spinal cord

Explanation:

The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is the part of the nervous system that connects the central nervous system (CNS) with the rest of the human body. The PNS includes ganglia, nerves, and certain cranial nerves. The PNS does not include the brain and spinal cord, which are components of the CNS.

Example Question #109 : Types Of Cells And Tissues

Which of the following describes the role of connective tissues (endoneurium, perineurium, and epineurium) around neurons in the peripheral nervous system (PNS)?

Possible Answers:

Insulation from toxins

Protection and support

There is no connective tissue surrounding peripheral nervous system (PNS) neurons

Saltatory conduction

Correct answer:

Protection and support

Explanation:

Three layers of connective tissue surround peripheral nervous system (PNS) neurons: the endoneurium, perineurium, and epineurium. This connective tissue encloses the neurons and offers protection and support.

Example Question #110 : Types Of Cells And Tissues

Which of the following best describes what occurs immediately after neurotransmitters bind to receptors on post-synaptic neurons?

Possible Answers:

Depolarization occurs

Neurotransmitters enter the cell via endocytosis

Ion gated channels open

The membrane potential stabilizes

Correct answer:

Ion gated channels open

Explanation:

After neurotransmitters bind to the post-synaptic neuron, ion gated channels open. This allows for depolarization and the generation of another action potential.

Example Question #31 : Understanding Neural Cells

What functions does the autonomic nervous system control?

Possible Answers:

Function of internal organs

Proper functioning of the brain

None of these

Control of body movements

Correct answer:

Function of internal organs

Explanation:

The autonomic nervous system is a part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the function of internal organs including the heart, lungs, and gastrointestinal organs. This is done through the use of nerves that activate and/or inactivate glands and muscles.

Example Question #32 : Understanding Neural Cells

The somatic nervous system is a part of which broader division of the nervous system?

Possible Answers:

Autonomic nervous system

Peripheral nervous system

Central nervous system

None of these

Correct answer:

Peripheral nervous system

Explanation:

The somatic nervous system is a part of the peripheral nervous system and controls voluntary body movements. The central nervous system involves only the brain and spinal cord. The autonomic nervous system is not under voluntary control.

Example Question #33 : Understanding Neural Cells

Which is not true about the myelin sheath on neurons?

Possible Answers:

Myelin is provided by Schwann cells

Myelinated areas of a neuron are called nodes of Ranvier

Myelin is what makes white matter appear white

Myelin allows for saltatory conduction

Correct answer:

Myelinated areas of a neuron are called nodes of Ranvier

Explanation:

The myelin sheath on neurons is a fatty sheath provided by Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system and oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system that increases the speed of signal transmission through saltatory conduction. Myelin makes matter in the brain appear white. Areas of the axon that aren’t myelinated are called nodes of Ranvier.

Example Question #34 : Understanding Neural Cells

What are nodes of Ranvier?

Possible Answers:

Projections off of the neuron cell body

Myelinated portions of axons

Junctions between neurons

Unmyelinated portions of axons

Correct answer:

Unmyelinated portions of axons

Explanation:

Nodes of Ranvier are unmyelinated portions of the axon, located in areas of the myelin sheath. The junctions between neurons are called synaptic clefts, where neurotransmitters from one neuron are released to cause a change in the receiving neuron.

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