Human Anatomy and Physiology : Circulatory and Respiratory Physiology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for Human Anatomy and Physiology

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Example Questions

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Example Question #581 : Systems Physiology

In which of the following places is the partial pressure of carbon dioxide the highest?

Possible Answers:

Alveolar gas

Systemic arterial blood

Exhaled gas

Systemic venous blood

The same in all of the places listed

Correct answer:

Systemic venous blood

Explanation:

The partial pressure of carbon dioxide would be the highest in systemic venous blood. This is because the systemic venous blood contains both the carbon dioxide that was in the systemic arterial blood and that which is added to the blood by tissue metabolism as the blood passes through the systemic capillaries.

Example Question #121 : Circulatory And Respiratory Physiology

For a person who is at rest, an oxyhemoglobin saturation of mixed systemic venous blood of 25% is __________.

Possible Answers:

slightly above normal

within the normal range

slightly below normal

much above normal

much below normal

Correct answer:

much below normal

Explanation:

The normal oxyhemoglobin concentration in mixed systemic venous blood for a person at rest is 75%. Therefore, a person with a oxyhemoglobin concentration of 25% is much below normal.

Example Question #21 : Respiratory Physiology

IRV (inspiratory reserve volume), TV (tidal volume), ERV (expiratory reserve volume), RV (residual volume)

The total lung capacity (TLC) is equal to which of the following?

Possible Answers:

IRV + ERV

IRV + TV + ERV

IRV + TV

IRV + TV + ERV + RV

TV + ERV

Correct answer:

IRV + TV + ERV + RV

Explanation:

The total lung capacity (TLC) = IRV (inspiratory reserve volume) + TV (tidal volume) + ERV (expiratory reserve volume) + RV (residual volume).

The total lung capacity (TLC ) is the maximum volume of gas present in the lungs after a maximal inspiration. It includes all of the possible lung volumes.

Example Question #122 : Circulatory And Respiratory Physiology

Which of the following is the actual sites of gas exchange?

Possible Answers:

pleural spaces

bronchioles

trachea

alveoli

Correct answer:

alveoli

Explanation:

Alveoli are the terminal point of the respiratory zone and closest to the blood vessels in the lung. Since gas exchange uses diffusion, using alveoli makes sense because they are closer to the blood vessels.

Example Question #21 : Respiratory Physiology

Which of the following stabilizes the deoxygenated form of hemoglobin?

Possible Answers:

Increased 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate

Increased carbon dioxide

Increased temperature

Decreased pH

All of these stabilize the deoxygenated form of hemoglobin

Correct answer:

All of these stabilize the deoxygenated form of hemoglobin

Explanation:

Hemoglobin's primary function is to transport oxygen from the lungs to the myoglobin in the tissues that need oxygen. Oxygen is required for aerobic cellular respiration, so the tissues that have high metabolisms require the most oxygen. The byproducts of metabolic processes include acid, heat, carbon dioxide, and 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate (BPG). It should make sense that the byproducts of metabolism (evidence that oxygen is being used) influence hemoglobin to drop off its oxygen. Remember, if we stabilize the deoxygenated form of hemoglobin, it is less reluctant to drop off its oxygen since the oxygenated form of hemoglobin is always more stable than deoxygenated.

For your reference, 2,3-BPG is an isomer of a glycolytic intermediate that sits in the central cavity of hemoglobin. 2,3-BPG carries a large negative charge, and interacts with the basic (positive) amino acid side chains facing the central cavity of the molecule. When positives and negatives are close together, the molecule is stable.

Example Question #1 : Help With Respiratory Proteins And Hormones

Surfactant plays a major role in the alveoli of the lungs in that it increases pulmonary __________.

Possible Answers:

compliance

edema

resistance

surface tension

surface tension and resistance

Correct answer:

compliance

Explanation:

The main role of surfactant on the alveoli (the lining of the lungs) is to decrease the surface tension of the lungs. Decreasing the surface tension allows more air to enter the lungs, in other words, it increases the compliance of the lungs.

Example Question #1 : Help With Respiratory Proteins And Hormones

A lecithin-to-sphingomyelin ratio greater than __________ in amniotic fluid indicates fetal lung maturity of the baby.

Possible Answers:

1.25

1.0

1.75

1.50

2.0

Correct answer:

2.0

Explanation:

The lecithin-sphingomyelin ratio is a test used to assess fetal lung maturity. Lecithin and sphingomyelin are both substances that make up surfactant, a soap-like substance that lowers the surface pressure of the alveoli of lungs. When dealing with premature babies, it is important that the lecithin-sphnigomyelin ratio is at least 2.0, which suggests fetal lung maturity. This ratio is obtained by acquiring amniotic fluid through a needle and helps doctors to assess if a premature baby is ready for delivery.

Example Question #1351 : Human Anatomy And Physiology

Why is part of the tidal volume considered "dead space" volume?

Possible Answers:

It completely loses all of the oxygen available to exchange with the blood

It does not take part in gas exchange in the lungs

It remains in the lungs after exhalation

It does not make it into the respiratory system

Correct answer:

It does not take part in gas exchange in the lungs

Explanation:

Tidal volume is typically 500 milliliters, and is the amount of air that is moved by normal respiration; however, some of this air does not make it to the alveoli in order to take part in gas exchange. This air may simply remain in the trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles, where gas exchange cannot take place. As a result, a portion of the tidal volume is considered "dead space" volume.

Dead space volume is a small fraction of the tidal volume, and is usually around 150 milliliters of air.

Example Question #1 : Help With Other Respiratory Physiology

What term causes total lung capacity to differ from vital capacity?

Possible Answers:

Tidal volume

Expiratory reserve volume

Dead space volume

Residual volume

Correct answer:

Residual volume

Explanation:

The vital capacity is defined as the maximum amount of air that a person can exhale after a maximum inspiration. This value does not incorporate the amount of air that remains in the lungs after the maximum expiration. This remaining volume of air is called the residual volume, and is included in the total lung capacity.

Tidal volume (TV) is the amount of air moved with each unconscious breath. Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) is the volume of additional air that can be forcefully inhaled, and expiratory reserve volume (ERV) is the additional volume of air that can be forcefully exhaled. After a forced inhalation, the lungs contain a volume equal to the lung capacity. After a forced exhalation, a volume equal to the vital capacity has been exhaled and a volume equal to the residual volume (RV) remains in the lungs.

To sum it up using equations:

Example Question #123 : Circulatory And Respiratory Physiology

What is the inspiratory reserve volume?

Possible Answers:

The total volume of the thoracic cavity

The additional amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled following a normal inspiration

The maximum amount of air that can be inhaled

The amount of air necessary to completely fill the lungs

The amount of air that stays in the lungs following exhalation

Correct answer:

The additional amount of air that can be forcefully inhaled following a normal inspiration

Explanation:

The inspiratory reserve volume can be thought of as the amount of air that can be brought into the lungs consciously after an unconscious inhalation. This value does not include the tidal volume that is brought into the body by normal breathing. The maximum volume of inhaled air from rest is equal to half the tidal volume plus the inspiratory reserve volume.

Total lung capacity is the sum of the tidal volume (normal breathing), inspiratory reserve volume (additional volume from forced inhalation), expiratory reserve volume (additional volume from forced exhalation), and residual volume (air that cannot be forcefully moved from the lungs).

Depending on physical ability and gender, the inspiratory reserve volume is between 1900 and 3000 milliliters of air. Women typically have a lower inspiratory reserve volume compared to men.

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