Human Anatomy and Physiology : Help with Hormone Types

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for Human Anatomy and Physiology

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Example Questions

Example Question #1 : Systems Physiology

How do steroid hormones affect their target organs?

Possible Answers:

They bind to receptors on the cell membrane in order to be activated, allowing them to directly enter the cell

They travel to target organs by floating freely in the bloodstream

They attach to protein receptors on the cell membrane

They enter the nucleus and affect the transcription of genes

They use a second messenger system to elicit an effect on target cells

Correct answer:

They enter the nucleus and affect the transcription of genes

Explanation:

Steroid hormones are nonpolar hormones that require carrier proteins in order to travel through the bloodstream. Once they reach their target cell, they are able to enter the cell's nucleus and affect the transcription of certain genes. Since steroid hormones are derived from cholesterol they are small and nonpolar, allowing them to freely diffuse across the membrane without protein mediation.

In contrast, peptide hormones and tyrosine derivatives are unable to freely cross the membrane due to size. Since these hormones cannot directly enter the cell, they generally initiate second messenger signal cascades. Peptide hormones are able to freely circulate, while tyrosine derivatives bind to carrier proteins in the blood.

Example Question #1 : Endocrine And Reproductive Physiology

Which of the following is a steroid hormone?

Possible Answers:

Epinephrine

Insulin

Cortisol

Parathyroid hormone

Correct answer:

Cortisol

Explanation:

Cortisol is the only steroid hormone listed, some other examples would be estrogen and androgens. Insulin and parathyroid hormones are peptide hormones. Epinephrine is a catecholamine, which is a tyrosine derivative.  

Example Question #1 : Endocrine Physiology

Which of the following is not a steroid hormone? 

Possible Answers:

Thyroid-stimulating hormone 

Cortisol 

Aldosterone 

Estrogen 

Androgen 

Correct answer:

Thyroid-stimulating hormone 

Explanation:

Estrogen, androgen, progesterone, cortisol, and aldosterone are all steroid hormones. Thyroid-stimulating hormone belongs to the class of hormones that are proteins, glycoproteins, and peptide hormones. Specifically, thyroid-stimulating hormone is a glycoprotein. 

Example Question #4 : Systems Physiology

Prostaglandins belong to what class of hormones? 

Possible Answers:

Amines 

Retinoids 

Eicosanoids 

Steroids 

Proteins 

Correct answer:

Eicosanoids 

Explanation:

Eicosanoids are local paracrine and autocrine agents that play an important role in inflammation. The eicosanoids include the thromboxanes, lipoxins, leukotrienes, and the prostaglandins. 

Example Question #5 : Systems Physiology

Which of the following is not an example of a lipid-soluble hormone? 

Possible Answers:

Prostaglandins 

Cortisol

Thyroid hormones 

Estrogen 

Insulin

Correct answer:

Insulin

Explanation:

Insulin belongs to the "proteins and peptides" class of hormones. The proteins and peptides are water-soluble hormones. Thyroid hormones, all steroids, retinoids, prostaglandins and vitamin D are all examples of lipid-soluble hormones. Note that even though thyroid hormones are derived from the amino acid tyrosine, they are insoluble in water, and are carried in the blood by proteins.

Example Question #6 : Systems Physiology

A particular hormone attaches to a receptor on its target organ and causes a secondary hormone signaling pathway to begin. What type of hormone is it?

Possible Answers:

Initiation

Tropic

Hydrophobic

Direct

Hydrophilic

Correct answer:

Tropic

Explanation:

A direct hormone binds to its target organ and effects an immediate change. A tropic hormone causes a secondary messenger pathway to commence and effects a change at the end of the pathway resulting in the release of another hormone. Hydrophobic hormones refer to lipophilic molecules, while hydrophilic molecules are the opposite. An example of this is adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) released from the anterior pituitary. It's target is the adrenal cortex, and its action is to stimulate the adrenal cortex to release cortical hormones.

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