Human Anatomy and Physiology : Gland Physiology

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for Human Anatomy and Physiology

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Help With Pituitary And Hypothalamus Physiology

Which of the following hormones is created in the hypothalamus, then sent to the pituitary gland?

Possible Answers:

Thyroid-stimulating hormone

Prolactin

Oxytocin

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

Correct answer:

Oxytocin

Explanation:

The pituitary gland can be further divided into the anterior and posterior pituitary gland. The anterior pituitary gland creates and secretes its hormones, but the posterior pituitary gland does not create its hormones. Instead, the hormones secreted by the posterior pituitary gland are created in the hypothalamus, and are then sent to the pituitary gland. The two hormones made in the hypothalamus are antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin.

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), prolactin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) are synthesized and secreted from the anterior pituitary.

Example Question #1 : Help With Pituitary And Hypothalamus Physiology

Which of the following hormones is not produced by the anterior pituitary gland?

Possible Answers:

Luteinizing hormone

Follicle-stimulating hormone

Prolactin

Anti-diuretic hormone

Growth hormone

Correct answer:

Anti-diuretic hormone

Explanation:

The anterior pituitary produces six hormones: follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, growth hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and thyroid-stimulating hormone.

The posterior pituitary releases only two hormones: anti-diuretic hormone (vasopressin) and oxytocin.

Example Question #32 : Systems Physiology

Which of the following hormones is not released by the anterior pituitary gland?

Possible Answers:

Prolactin

Luteinizing hormone

Oxytocin

Follicle-stimulating hormone

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

Correct answer:

Oxytocin

Explanation:

The anterior pituitary gland releases seven hormones. Four of these are tropic hormones, meaning that they act on other glands to stimulate other hormone activity. These four are follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and thyroid-stimulation hormone. The other three secretions are prolactin, endorphins, and growth hormone.

The hormones of the anterior pituitary can be remembered using the mnemonic "FLAT PEG."

Oxytocin is released from the posterior pituitary, along with antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin).

Example Question #1 : Gland Physiology

What gland secretes oxytocin?

Possible Answers:

Thyroid gland 

Anterior pituitary gland

Posterior pituitary gland

Pineal gland

Correct answer:

Posterior pituitary gland

Explanation:

Oxytocin is a hormone found in both males and females, but serves a more widely recognized role in females. It is released from the posterior pituitary gland, along with antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin) hormone. Oxytocin is responsible for stimulating contractions during childbirth and is one of only a few hormones to be controlled via positive feedback.

Example Question #1 : Help With Pituitary And Hypothalamus Physiology

The pituitary gland is under control of the __________.

Possible Answers:

hypothalamus 

thalamus 

thyroid 

adrenal gland 

cerebellum 

Correct answer:

hypothalamus 

Explanation:

The pituitary gland is under the control of the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus determines which and how much of each hormone the pituitary will release by secreting releasing and/or inhibiting factors. The pituitary gland is connected to the base of the hypothalamus by the pituitary stalk. 

Example Question #3 : Gland Physiology

Antidiuretic hormone is produced by the __________ and released by the __________.

Possible Answers:

neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary) . . . neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary)

neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary) . . . adrenal medulla

adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary) . . . adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary)

hypothalamus . . . adenohypophysis (anterior pituitary)

hypothalamus . . . neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary)

Correct answer:

hypothalamus . . . neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary)

Explanation:

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is a hormone that is produced in the hypothalamus and travels down nerve ending from the hypothalamus to be released from the posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis). ADH is the hormone that is responsible for reabsorbing water back into the blood stream at the level of the kidney.

Example Question #1 : Help With Pituitary And Hypothalamus Physiology

Which of the following hormones is not produced by the anterior pituitary?

Possible Answers:

Oxytocin

Growth hormone

Thyroid-stimulating hormone

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

Correct answer:

Oxytocin

Explanation:

The anterior pituitary produces seven products : follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), prolactin, endorphins, and growth hormone (GH). The posterior pituitary produces oxytocin and anti diuretic hormone (ADH). To remember the anterior pituitary products, think of the mnemonic FLAT PEG:

FSH

LH

ACTH

TSH

Prolactin

Endorphins

GH

Example Question #1 : Help With Ovary And Testes Physiology

Which of the following hormones is secreted from the ovary?

Possible Answers:

More than one of these answers

None of these answers

Progesterone

Testosterone

Estrogen

Correct answer:

More than one of these answers

Explanation:

The ovaries secrete estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone. 

Example Question #1 : Gland Physiology

Which of the following glands would be most active in a person with low blood calcium levels?

Possible Answers:

Parathyroid gland

Pituitary gland

Thyroid gland

Pancreas

Thymus gland

Correct answer:

Parathyroid gland

Explanation:

In accordance with negative feedback and homeostasis, low blood calcium levels will cause the body to release a hormone in order to raise calcium levels. Parathyroid hormone is a hormone that acts to raise blood calcium levels by stimulating osteoclast activity, releasing stored calcium from bone into the blood. The parathyroid gland would be most active during low blood calcium in order to initiate this effect.

The thyroid gland is involved in raising blood calcium levels (calcitonin) and mediating metabolism (T3 and T4). The pancreas moderates blood glucose levels (insulin and glucagon). The pituitary gland is associated with several processes, including stimulation of other endocrine glands, but is not linked to parathyroid activity. The thymus is located superior to the heart and is the location of maturation for T-lymphocytes; it also secretes certain hormones that affect immune system maintenance and development.

Example Question #2 : Help With Thyroid And Parathyroid Physiology

Which hormone increases blood calcium levels? 

Possible Answers:

Calcitonin

Parathyroid hormone

Aldosterone 

Thyroid-stimulating hormone

Correct answer:

Parathyroid hormone

Explanation:

When blood calcium levels are low, parathyroid hormone is released to increase calcium reabsorption of the kidneys and to stimulate osteoclasts, which are responsible for bone resorption. These processes serve to increase blood calcium levels.

Parathyroid hormone is an antagonist to calcitonin, which is released from the thryoid gland and increases blood calcium levels.

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