Human Anatomy and Physiology : Defining Anatomical Orientations

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for Human Anatomy and Physiology

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Example Questions

Example Question #21 : Defining Anatomical Orientations

This imaginary line divides the body into symmetrical halves.

 

Possible Answers:

Frontal plane

Transverse plane

Horizontal plane

Midsagittal plane

Bilateral plane

Correct answer:

Midsagittal plane

Explanation:

The midsagittal plane or the median plane divides the body vertically into two symmetrical halves. It runs from the top of the head straight down the face, between the eyes, down the nose and through the naval. The horizontal or transverse plane divides the body into superior and inferior halves. The frontal plane divides the body in half between the anterior and posterior sides. It is sometimes called the coronal plane.

Example Question #22 : Defining Anatomical Orientations

What surface is the most inferior of the body?

Possible Answers:

Sural

Plantar

Dorsal

Ventral

Cephalic

Correct answer:

Plantar

Explanation:

The terms inferior and superior refer to lower and upper parts of the body. For instance the knee is inferior to the hip, while the elbow is superior to the knee and the hip. The most inferior part of the body is the sole of the foot or plantar region.

Example Question #21 : Introductory Concepts

The abdomen is __________ to the head.

Possible Answers:

deep

superficial

posterior

superior

inferior

Correct answer:

inferior

Explanation:

The abdomen is located below the head. Inferior is the correct anatomical term to describe one body part that is located below another body part.

Example Question #23 : Defining Anatomical Orientations

What is the coronal plane?

Possible Answers:

A horizontal plane that divides the body into superior and inferior regions

A vertical plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior regions

A flat area on the coronus

A vertical plane that divides the body into left and right regions

Correct answer:

A vertical plane that divides the body into anterior and posterior regions

Explanation:

The coronal plane is what divides the body from "front" and "back". There is no such thing as a coronus in human anatomy or physiology. The area over the cranium is known as the cranial region. The neck region is also know as the cervical region. A horizontal plane that divides the body into superior and inferior regions is known as a transverse plane and a vertical plane that divides the body into left and right regions is known as a sagittal plane.

Example Question #21 : Defining Anatomical Orientations

Which of the following groups of muscles in the leg allows a person to stand on their toes?

Possible Answers:

Everters

Plantarflexors

Dorsiflexors

Abductors

Inverters

Correct answer:

Plantarflexors

Explanation:

Plantar flexion is the movement where the angle between the sole of the foot and the back of the leg decreases. Plantar flexors are part of the posterior compartment of the lower leg, and consist of flexor hallucis longus and flexor digitorum. These muscles not only work in plantar flexion but also flex the phalanges of the foot (toes). 

Abduction is a movement where structures increase their distance to the midline.

Dorsiflexion is a movement where the toes are brought closer to the shin. 

Eversion is the movement of the sole of the foot away from the median plane; inversion is the movement of the sole towards the median plane.

Example Question #24 : Defining Anatomical Orientations

Which plane divides the body or organ into superior and inferior portions?

Possible Answers:

Frontal

Sagittal

Vertical

Coronal

Transverse

Correct answer:

Transverse

Explanation:

A sagittal plane divides the body into left and right portions, a frontal (or coronal) plane is perpendicular to a sagittal plane and divides the body into anterior and posterior portions. A vertical plane is not a term used in human anatomy.

Example Question #24 : Defining Anatomical Orientations

Which of the following regions would include and/or be bordered by the left costal margin?

Possible Answers:

Left hypochondrium

Umbilical 

Right inguinal 

Hypogastric

Left inguinal 

Correct answer:

Left hypochondrium

Explanation:

The abdomen can be divided into regions to allow for improved definition of anatomical location. One commonly used division uses a nine region scheme dividing the abdomen into three vertical sections by drawing lines at bilateral mid-clavicular lines, and horizontally into three regions by drawing lines at the transpyloric and transtubercular planes.

Starting superiorly, the abdomen is divided into the right and left hypochondriums (right and left upper quadrants) which are inferior to the thorax in the area of the lower ribs at the lower costal cartilages. Between the left and right hypochondrium (upper medial aspect of the abdomen) lies the epigastric region. Below these regions lie the left and right lumbar sections with the umbilical region lying medially. Most caudally the left and right iliac regions bound the medial hypogastric region. 

Example Question #25 : Defining Anatomical Orientations

Which of the following lists describes structures that could all be found in one transverse plane?

Possible Answers:

Transverse process of T4 vertebra,  spinous process of T5 vertebra,  right fifth rib

Transverse process of T4 vertebra,  spinous process of T5 vertebra,  right fourth rib

Transverse process of T5 vertebra,  spinous process of T4 vertebra,  right fifth rib

Transverse process of T5 vertebra,  spinous process of T4 vertebra,  right sixth rib

Correct answer:

Transverse process of T5 vertebra,  spinous process of T4 vertebra,  right fifth rib

Explanation:

The transverse process of T5 vertebra,  spinous process of T4 vertebra,  right fifth rib will all be seen in one transverse section. This is because the spinous process from the vertebrae above (in this case T4) in an downward pointing angle covers the superior two thirds of the posterior side of the vertebral body directly below it. Additionally you will see the rib that corresponds to the vertebral body seen, in this case rib 5. 

Example Question #21 : Defining Anatomical Orientations

A plane of section that divides the anterior half of the human body from the posterior half is an example of which of these?

Possible Answers:

Parasagittal section

Coronal section

Oblique section

Midsagittal section

Correct answer:

Coronal section

Explanation:

A coronal section (frontal plane) describes a plane that divides the body into ventral (front) and dorsal (back) sections. A transverse plane is a horizontal plane that divides the body into superior and inferior parts. A sagittal plane divides the body into right and left halves. 

Example Question #26 : Defining Anatomical Orientations

When the foot is moved on the ground with the toes traveling medially, this is called __________.

Possible Answers:

adduction

eversion

dorsiflexion

inversion

Correct answer:

inversion

Explanation:

Inversion describes this motion. Eversion is the opposite of inversion, where the toes move laterally outwards. Dorsiflexion is when the toes move up, and adduction refers to medial movement of the limbs rather than the foot.

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