GED Science : Biology and Life Sciences

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for GED Science

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Biology And Life Sciences

Which of the following statements about bacteria is correct?

Possible Answers:

Bacteria lack the necessary organelles to be considered alive

All bacteria require a host organism to infect

Bacteria cells have the same general structures and organelles as animal cells

Bacteria are neither alive nor dead

Bacteria are considered by scientists to be alive

Correct answer:

Bacteria are considered by scientists to be alive

Explanation:

Bacteria are prokaryotic organisms and are considered alive. Bacteria can survive and reproduce independent of a host (consider a colony of bacteria cells growing in a Petri dish). Though they do not have membrane-bound organelles, like a nucleus or mitochondria, bacterial cells do have DNA and are still able to produce cellular energy.

This question confuses many properties of viruses with those of bacteria. Viruses are not generally considered alive and require a host cell in order to replicate.

Example Question #1 : Biology And Life Sciences

The pigments in chloroplasts absorb red light and reflect green light. During photosynthesis, the absorbed light is used as energy to convert carbohydrates to ATP for the plant to use.

Under what color light would a plant grow the slowest?

Possible Answers:

Blue

Yellow

Purple

Red

Green

Correct answer:

Green

Explanation:

The plant is only able to use absorbed light during photosynthesis; reflected light cannot be used as energy, as it is simply returned back into the surroundings. Red light will make a plant grow the fastest because it is absorbed. Since green light is reflected, growing a plant in green light will result in very slow growth. The light will effectively bounce off the plant, rather than being absorbed.

Example Question #2 : Biology And Life Sciences

What polysaccharide is used to construct the cell walls of fungi?

Possible Answers:

Amylose

Chitin

Peptidoglycan

Cellulose

Correct answer:

Chitin

Explanation:

Fungal cell walls can be differentiated from plant and bacterial cell walls in that they are made of the polysaccharide chitin. Plant cell walls use cellulose, and bacteria use peptidoglycan. Amylose is a component of starch.

Example Question #1 : Biology And Life Sciences

What is one of the primary reasons that viruses are not considered living organisms?

Possible Answers:

They are capable of causing disease

They do not use proteins in their structures

They do not make their own proteins

They do not have nucleic acids

Correct answer:

They do not make their own proteins

Explanation:

Viruses are considered non-living organisms for a variety of reasons. One of the main reasons is that viruses are incapable of creating their own proteins and must hijack host cell ribosomes in order to make them.

Virus structures contain both proteins and nucleic acids, but are unable to replicate their genetic material unless they infect a host cell.

Example Question #1 : Biology And Life Sciences

Which phase of mitosis involves the separation of sister chromatids? 

Possible Answers:

Anaphase

Prophase

Telophase

Metaphase

Correct answer:

Anaphase

Explanation:

Mitosis is composed of four primary phases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

During prophase the chromosomes condense, the nuclear membrane dissolves, and spindle fibers begin to form. Metaphase marks the time when the chromosomes align at the center of the cell and the spindle fibers attach to the centers of the chromosomes. During anaphase, the spindle fibers contract, separating the sister chromatids and pulling them toward opposite poles of the cell. Telophase marks the beginning of cytokinesis, when the cell fully divides, and the nuclear membrane reappears.

The correct answer is anaphase.

Example Question #1 : Biology And Life Sciences

Place the steps of mitosis in the correct order.

Possible Answers:

Prophase, interphase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

Interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

Metaphase, prophase, anaphase, telophase

Interphase, metaphase, prophase, anaphase, telophase

Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

Correct answer:

Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase

Explanation:

Mitosis is the process of cell replication and division for most eukaryotic cells (with the exception of gametes, which undergo meiosis). Mitosis has four main stages: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Interphase is the portion of the cell cycle during which cell growth and DNA replication take place; it is not considered a stage of mitosis.

During prophase, the chromosomes form and the nuclear membrane dissolves. During metaphase, the chromosomes migrate to the center of the cell and align. During anaphase, spindle fibers pull the chromatids apart, separating sister chromatids to separate sides of the cell. During telophase, the nuclear membrane re-forms around the chromatids and the cytoplasm beings to divide to create two new daughter cells.

Example Question #1 : Biology And Life Sciences

The interphase of a cell's life cycle can be divided into which of the following phases?

Possible Answers:

Mitosis and meiosis

Prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase

G0, G1, S, and G2

Mitosis and cytokinesis

Replication, rest, division

Correct answer:

G0, G1, S, and G2

Explanation:

Somatic cells spend the majority of their functional lives in interphase. In preparation for division, interphase can be divided into the G1, S and G2 phases. An interphase cell can also be in G0 phase, in this phase the cell is not preparing for mitosis but is performing all other normal cell functions.

Example Question #1 : Mitosis

Mitosis and meiosis are both processes by which cells reproduce.

Which of the following statements is true about mitosis?

Possible Answers:

Mitosis creates diploid cells that are exact copies of the original cell.

Mitosis creates gametes.

Mitosis creates haploid cells that are exact copies of the original cell.

Mitosis creates haploid cells that are unique from the original cell.

Mitosis results in the formation of 4 unique daughter cells.

Correct answer:

Mitosis creates diploid cells that are exact copies of the original cell.

Explanation:

Mitosis creates two diploid daughter cells that are identical to the original cell. This process creates somatic (body cells).

Example Question #1 : Biology And Life Sciences

Which of the following is a key characteristic of metaphase?

Possible Answers:

Chromosomes separate and move toward opposite ends of the cell

DNA replicates and there are two copies of each chromosome

Chromosomes coil so tightly that they become visible at individual structures

The chromosomes move to a narrow central zone of the cell

Nuclear membranes form and the chromosomes gradually uncoil

Correct answer:

The chromosomes move to a narrow central zone of the cell

Explanation:

Metaphase is characterized by chromosomes moving to the narrow central zone of the cell called the metaphase plate/equator.

Example Question #1 : Biology And Life Sciences

Which of the following events does not take place during both mitosis and meiosis?

Possible Answers:

Crossing over between non-sister chromatids

Dissolving of the nuclear membrane

Separation of sister chromatids

The condensing of chromosomes

Correct answer:

Crossing over between non-sister chromatids

Explanation:

Crossing over is an event that recombines DNA between homologous, non-identical chromosomes. The result is an increase in genetic variation because the resulting daughter cells have slightly different genetic combinations than the original parent cell. Crossing over only occurs during meiosis. This is because homologous chromosomes are only in adjacent positions during prophase I. Crossing over cannot occur during mitosis because this alignment is never present; daughter cells of mitosis are always genetically identical to the parent cell.

Sister chromatids separate during anaphase of mitosis and anaphase II of meiosis. Chromosomes condense and the nuclear membrane dissolves during prophase of mitosis and prophase I of meiosis.

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