AP European History : Political History

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP European History

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Example Questions

Example Question #51 : Political History

Which of the following played a major role in the colonization of India?

Possible Answers:

The Portuguese Navy

The Dutch East India Company

The British East India Company

The Spanish Armada

The Hanseatic League

Correct answer:

The British East India Company

Explanation:

The British East India Company, chartered in 1600 by Queen Elizabeth, succeeded in infiltrating the Indian political and economic systems and achieved a great degree of control over the region by the late 18th century.

Example Question #52 : Political History

Which of these options was a characteristic of the Belle Epoque?

Possible Answers:

The political supremacy of the bourgeoisie

Increased frequency of conflict

The repression of organized labor

Decreased inequality

An emerging norm against rigid alliance systems

Correct answer:

The political supremacy of the bourgeoisie

Explanation:

Actual wars were infrequent during the Belle Epoque, Europe’s “golden age” from 1871 to 1914, during which Germany was the rising power on the continent while Britain and France tended to their vast overseas possessions. Rigid alliances, however, proliferated during this era and helped lead to World War I. Organized labor gained in strength and political potency despite opposition from the industrial elite. The commercial middle class or bourgeoisie did reign supreme politically, while inequality was heightened.

Example Question #52 : Political History

What was a consequence of the Berlin Conference of 1884-1885?

Possible Answers:

The British and French permanently resolved their issues in Sudan

Ethiopia and Liberia were incorporated into Italian jurisdiction

Any European country acquiring an African protectorate had to inform the treaty’s signatories

David Livingstone was authorized to rescue Henry Stanley from modern Tanzania

Leopold II was stripped of the Belgian Congo for crimes against humanity

Correct answer:

Any European country acquiring an African protectorate had to inform the treaty’s signatories

Explanation:

Livingstone rescued Stanley before the Berlin Conference. Ethiopia and Liberia were the only free African states at the start of World War I in 1914. The Fashoda Incident of 1898 in Sudan forced a reconciliation between Britain and France, so the Berlin conference did not permanently eliminate disputes. Belgium’s parliament, not an international convention, deprived Leopold II of his personal kingdom in the Congo. The conference did require notification of signatories during the formation of a new protectorate.

Example Question #53 : Political History

Who was the first British monarch to control the Indian Empire?

Possible Answers:

Edward VIII 

Victoria

George V 

Stephen III

George IV 

Correct answer:

Victoria

Explanation:

The British East India Company was key to Great Britain gaining influence and wealth in India. The Company played an active role in the Indian Government, and in 1857 overthrew Mughal Bahadur Shah II as Emperor of India and when the Company was dissolved the control of India reverted to the royal family. Queen Victoria was declared Empress of India in 1876 and used by British monarchs up until India gained its independence in 1948. During that time period India greatly enriched the British Empire and became a valuable asset to the monarchs.

Example Question #54 : Political History

The "Scramble for Africa" ___________.

Possible Answers:

focused largely on social concerns, with little emphasis placed on developing African economic output 

ended with the Berlin Conference, run by Otto von Bismarck, as he claimed African territory for Germany

failed as a result of diseases to which Europeans had no immunity

succeeded as a result of the efforts of British Prime Minister William Gladstone

involved European nations carving out territory in Africa for themselves with little concern for native people's interests

Correct answer:

involved European nations carving out territory in Africa for themselves with little concern for native people's interests

Explanation:

The Scramble for Africa is often dated back to the Berlin Conference, organized by Bismarck. This is when it really begins, rather than when it ends, and was when European nations set the ground rules for their imperial takeover of Africa. No Africans were invited to attend. Gladstone was something of a critic of empire. The development of quinine, among other things, helped Europeans stave off diseases native to Africa, although they still faced great risks to their health.

Example Question #55 : Political History

European imperial powers in the late nineteenth century __________.

Possible Answers:

discouraged adherence to ideas about racial hierarchies, instead focusing on unifying humanity

emphasized the production of raw materials in colonized nations and created infrastructures like railroads to easily transport those materials

valued religious education above all else, as seen by the development of well-funded, well-attended, far-reaching churches and schools spread throughout new imperial colonies

encouraged European cooperation in their territories throughout the world 

encouraged the development of economic self-sufficiency in African colonies

Correct answer:

emphasized the production of raw materials in colonized nations and created infrastructures like railroads to easily transport those materials

Explanation:

Emphasizing the production of raw materials led to economic dependency in African colonies. While some missionaries were successful, many organizations struggled to spread their religious message. European understandings of racial hierarchies helped justify expanding empires, and this expansion led to European conflict and tension in foreign territories, despite Bismarck's attempt at preventing conflict with the Berlin Conference. An example of that tension would be the Fashoda Crisis (1898) between Britain and France over control of the Sudan. 

Example Question #56 : Political History

Which peoples/empire invaded Britain in 55 BCE?

Possible Answers:

Danes

Germans

Romans

French

Russians

Correct answer:

Romans

Explanation:

The Roman empire invaded Britain as part of Julius Caesars rapid expansion, though Britain would not come under Roman rule until 43 CE under Emperor Claudius. The invasion in 55 CE was more of a scouting venture. An expedition to see if the land was worth invading on a large scale.

Example Question #57 : Political History

In what year did Romans begin to withdraw from Britain?

Possible Answers:

310 CE

700 CE

410 CE

450 CE

1066 CE

Correct answer:

410 CE

Explanation:

With the failing of the Western Roman empire, it was forced to withdraw from Britain. The withdrawal of Rome was helped along by many British nobles unhappy with Roman rule. This was one of the first warning signs for the fall of the entire Roman empire.

Example Question #58 : Political History

Which country's parliament took over colonial governance of the Congo Free State after King Leopold II was forced to cede direct rule in 1908?

Possible Answers:

France

England

Belgium

Portugal

Germany

Correct answer:

Belgium

Explanation:

King Leopold II was required to return the colony over to his nation of Belgium's parliament after widespread condemnation of his rule and widespread atrocities. Atrocities would continue under Belgian colonial rule.

Example Question #59 : Political History

Which modern African nation as not considered a colony by France prior to independence, but was instead considered a département, or part of France?

Possible Answers:

Mali

Guinea

Senegal

Gabon

Algeria

Correct answer:

Algeria

Explanation:

Mali, Senegal, Guinea, and Gabon were all held within French colonial territory prior to independence. Only Algeria was considered an integral part of the French nation and French soil.

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