AP Biology : Understanding Neural Cells

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Biology

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Example Questions

Example Question #21 : Understanding Neural Cells

Which of the following characteristics represent true features of dendrites?

Possible Answers:

All of these

They connect to the soma

They receive electrical signals from other cells

They are branched projections 

Correct answer:

All of these

Explanation:

Dendrites are branched projections of the neuron that receive electrical signals from other cells. The dendrites are connected to the soma—cell body.

Example Question #21 : Understanding Neural Cells

Which of the following are considered to be major neurotransmitters?

Possible Answers:

Norepinephrine

All of these

Epinephrine

Dopamine

Correct answer:

All of these

Explanation:

Neurotransmitters are chemicals that transmit signals from one neuron to another across the synapse. This transport is conducted through exocytosis and endocytosis of neurotransmitters in vesicles. Common neurotransmitters are norepinephrine, dopamine, epinephrine, and histamine.

Example Question #21 : Understanding Neural Cells

Which of the following best describes the synapse?

Possible Answers:

The junction between two nerve cells

It is a term used to describe the neuron in its entirety

Myelinated portions of the axon

The area of the neuron where the nucleus is located

Correct answer:

The junction between two nerve cells

Explanation:

The synapse is the junction between two nerve cells through which neurotransmitters conduct an electrical signal.

Example Question #22 : Understanding Neural Cells

Which of the following can be found in the soma of a neuron?

Possible Answers:

Axon hillock

Nodes of Ranvier

Nucleus

Nucleus and axon hillock

Correct answer:

Nucleus and axon hillock

Explanation:

The soma is the cell body of a neuron. The nucleus and many organelles are located within the soma. The soma has a specialized region called the axon hillock, which is where the soma transitions into the axon.

Example Question #791 : Ap Biology

Which of the following best represents the specific type of information that afferent neurons transmit?

Possible Answers:

Sensory information

Enable communications between different parts of the nervous system

All of these

Information that produces movement

Correct answer:

Sensory information

Explanation:

Afferent neurons—sensory neurons—transmit sensory information. Sensory information includes stimuli received from sight, sound, and feeling.

Example Question #21 : Understanding Neural Cells

Which of the following describes where motor neuron signals originate and end?

Possible Answers:

They originate in the muscles and end in the spinal cord

They originate in the spinal cord and end in the muscles

They originate in the spinal cord and end in the brain

They originate in the brain and end in the spinal cord

Correct answer:

They originate in the spinal cord and end in the muscles

Explanation:

Motor neurons—efferent neurons—transmit information that produces movement. This signal originates in the spinal cord and terminates in muscles, resulting in movement.

Example Question #101 : Types Of Cells And Tissues

Which of the following is true regarding interneurons?

Possible Answers:

They create neural circuits

They are a part of the central nervous system 

All of these

There are two types of interneurons: local and relay

Correct answer:

All of these

Explanation:

Interneurons are a class of neuron that create neural circuits between sensory neurons, motor neurons, or the central nervous system. Interneurons are components of the central nervous system and can be further categorized into local and relay interneurons.

Example Question #21 : Understanding Neural Cells

Which of the following is not true regarding Schwann cells?

Possible Answers:

Nodes of Ranvier are a type of specialized Schwann cell

Schwann cells allow for saltatory conduction in the neuron

They are a type of glial cell

Schwann cells form the myelin sheath

Correct answer:

Nodes of Ranvier are a type of specialized Schwann cell

Explanation:

Schwann cells are a type of glial cell that wrap around the axon to form the myelin sheath. This insulation allows for saltatory conduction, which increases the speed of signal transmission through the neuron. Gaps between Schwann cell myelination on the axon are called nodes of Ranvier.

Example Question #22 : Understanding Neural Cells

Which of the following distinguishes grey matter from white matter in the central nervous system?

Possible Answers:

Grey matter has fewer myelinated axons

Only white matter is located in the brain 

Grey matter is chiefly located in the spinal cord

White matter contains most of the cell bodies in the central nervous system

Correct answer:

Grey matter has fewer myelinated axons

Explanation:

Grey matter is a part of the central nervous system that contains most of the cell bodies in the system and few myelinated axons. Grey matter is located in both the brain and spinal cord. Among other things, it is involved in muscle control, sensory perception, emotions, and self-control.

Example Question #23 : Understanding Neural Cells

Which of the following represents the primary features of white matter in the central nervous system?

Possible Answers:

It contains myelinated axons

The white color comes from the fatty myelin around the axons

White matter is located in the deep parts of the brain and superficial spinal cord

All of these

Correct answer:

All of these

Explanation:

White matter is a component of the central nervous system that contains myelinated axons and is located in the deep parts of the brain and superficial spinal cord. The term “white” matter comes from the white color of the area due to the fatty myelin that surrounds the axons. White matter is involved in communication between the gray matter and other parts of the central nervous system.

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