AP Biology : Understanding Embryogenesis and Development

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Biology

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Example Questions

Example Question #11 : Understanding Embryogenesis And Development

Which of the following best describes the structure that the neural tube develops into?

Possible Answers:

Brain

Central nervous system

Spinal cord

All of these

Correct answer:

All of these

Explanation:

The neural tube develops into the central nervous system, which is composed of the brain and spinal cord. The neural tube develops during primary neurulation from the neural plate.

Example Question #12 : Understanding Embryogenesis And Development

Which of the following structures forms during primary neurulation?

Possible Answers:

Mesoderm

Medullary cord

Neural tube

Endoderm

Correct answer:

Neural tube

Explanation:

Neurulation is the process of neural system development in vertebrates. This process can be divided into two stages: primary neurulation and secondary neurulation. The process of primary neurulation is the formation of the neural tube from the neural plate. The neural plate develops from the ectoderm is a structure that becomes the neural tube. This development occurs through the invagination of the neural plate and convergence of neural fold cells, pushing down neural plate cells. The neural folds eventually touch and separate from the neural plate to complete neural tube formation.

Example Question #13 : Understanding Embryogenesis And Development

Which of the following ends of the embryo during secondary neurulation?

Possible Answers:

Right

Cranial

Left

Caudal

Correct answer:

Caudal

Explanation:

Neurulation, or the formation and development of the neural tube, can be divided into primary and secondary neurulation. During primary neurulation, the neural tube forms from the neural plate. During secondary neurulation, the neural tube develops from the caudal end of the embryo. Eventually both neural tubes connect.

Example Question #14 : Understanding Embryogenesis And Development

Which of the following structures is responsible for inducing neurulation?

Possible Answers:

Ectoderm

Neural plate

Notochord

Neural crest cells

Correct answer:

Notochord

Explanation:

Neurulation is induced in embryos through secreted growth factors and inhibitory factors from the notochord. The notochord is a rod-shaped structure located below the neural tube of chordate embryos. Notochords are important in signaling neurulation and organogenesis in embryos. The notochord secretes both growth and inhibitory factors in the regulation of neurulation.

Example Question #15 : Understanding Embryogenesis And Development

Which of the following best describes where neural crest cells are located after neurulation?

Possible Answers:

On the ectoderm 

Within the interior of the neural tube

Between the neural tube and the ectoderm

The border of the neural plate

Correct answer:

Between the neural tube and the ectoderm

Explanation:

Neural crest cells are a group of multipotent migratory cells. Prior to neurulation, neural crest cells are located between the neural plate and the ectoderm. During neurulation and the infolding of the neural plate, neural crest cells are located on the top of the neural tube. Afterwards, the cells migrate to the area between the neural tube and the ectoderm, where they differentiate into various cell types.

Example Question #16 : Understanding Embryogenesis And Development

Which of the following is not a risk factor for miscarriage?

Possible Answers:

Advanced maternal age

Use of prenatal vitamins

Tobacco use

Obesity 

Correct answer:

Use of prenatal vitamins

Explanation:

Miscarriage is the death and subsequent abortion of an embryo before it is able to survive outside of the mother. Miscarriage is more common early in pregnancy and common symptoms include vaginal bleeding and cramping. There are many risk factors associated with miscarriage including advanced maternal age, tobacco use, and obesity. In order to prevent miscarriage, expecting mothers are advised to avoid risk factors and practice good prenatal care.

Example Question #17 : Understanding Embryogenesis And Development

Which of the following best describes the prenatal condition in which the maternal immune system attacks the developing embryo?

Possible Answers:

Toxoplasmosis

Rubella

Ectopic pregnancy

Hemolytic disease

Correct answer:

Hemolytic disease

Explanation:

Hemolytic disease of the newborn is a condition during pregnancy in which maternal antibodies pass to the fetus through the placenta. These antibodies attack fetal cells, specifically red blood cells, causing developmental and structural problems in the fetus. Treatment includes blood transfusion into the fetus or early induction of labor.

Example Question #18 : Understanding Embryogenesis And Development

Which of the following is a true characteristic of Hox genes?

Possible Answers:

Hox genes control body plan development during embryogenesis

They include a homeobox

All of these

They code for transcription factors

Correct answer:

All of these

Explanation:

Hox genes are a class of genes that control body plan development during embryogenesis. The Hox gene DNA sequence is called a “homeobox” and codes for transcription factors.

Example Question #19 : Understanding Embryogenesis And Development

Which of the following diseases is related to prenatal care?

Possible Answers:

Down syndrome

Hemolytic disease

Fetal alcohol syndrome

Hepatitis B

Correct answer:

Fetal alcohol syndrome

Explanation:

Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a disease that occurs when the individual’s mother drank alcohol during the pregnancy in which they were conceived. There are many symptoms including brain damage, intellectual disabilities, and heart disease. These symptoms come from the passage of ethanol to the fetus from the placenta. The ethanol impairs nervous system development and negative impacts on other organ and developmental systems.

Example Question #20 : Understanding Embryogenesis And Development

What were the effects of thalidomide on pregnant women when it was used to treat morning sickness during the 1950’s?

Possible Answers:

Miscarriage

Carcinogenicity of the fetus

Limb deformities

Maternal-fetal incompatibility 

Correct answer:

Limb deformities

Explanation:

During the 1950’s, thalidomide was an over-the-counter drug advertised and used to treat morning sickness in pregnant women. Thalidomide was later found to cause limb and skeletal deformities in resulting fetuses. Subsequently, the sale and use of the drug has ended.

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