AP Biology : Types of Cells and Tissues

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Biology

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Example Questions

Example Question #61 : Types Of Cells And Tissues

Which of the following best describes how type IIb skeletal muscle tissue differs from type IIa skeletal muscle tissue?

Possible Answers:

Type IIb tissue is aerobic while type IIa tissue is anaerobic

Type IIb tissue is anaerobic while type IIa tissue is aerobic

Type IIb tissue has no mitochondria while type IIa tissue has many mitochondria

Type IIb tissue has many mitochondria while type IIa tissue has fewer mitochondria

Correct answer:

Type IIb tissue is anaerobic while type IIa tissue is aerobic

Explanation:

Type IIb skeletal muscle tissue is a subtype of skeletal muscle tissue that is anaerobic and has fewer mitochondria than type IIa.

Example Question #62 : Types Of Cells And Tissues

Which of the following best describes type IIx skeletal muscle contraction?

Possible Answers:

It contracts more quickly than aerobic muscles 

All of these

It is the fastest muscle type in humans

Sustains short bursts of anaerobic contraction

Correct answer:

All of these

Explanation:

Type IIx skeletal muscle tissue is the fastest muscle type in humans. This subtype of skeletal muscle tissue is characterized by short bursts of anaerobic contraction. It is also able to contract more quickly than aerobic muscles.

Example Question #63 : Types Of Cells And Tissues

In regard to muscles, which of the following statements best defines a sarcomere?

Possible Answers:

Sarcomeres include A bands and I bands

Sarcomeres are the areas between two I bands

Sarcomeres are the areas between Z lines

Sarcomeres are Z lines

Correct answer:

Sarcomeres are the areas between Z lines

Explanation:

Sarcomeres are considered to be the functional units of muscles and are defined as the areas between two Z lines. Sarcomeres are the units that are responsible for the striated appearance of certain muscle types (skeletal and cardiac). 

Example Question #35 : Understanding Muscle Cells

Which of the following best represents the generic term for a muscle cell?

Possible Answers:

Myofibril

Myoblast

Myocyte

Sarcomere

Correct answer:

Myocyte

Explanation:

Muscle cells are often referred to as “myocytes.” Myocytes are tubular cells that develop during a process called myogenesis and specialize based on their association with specific muscle types.

Example Question #36 : Understanding Muscle Cells

Which of the following pairs of two motor proteins are critical in human muscle contraction?

Possible Answers:

Myosin and kinesin

Actin and myosin

Actin and kinesin

Kinesin and dynein

Correct answer:

Actin and myosin

Explanation:

Human muscle contraction relies on the action of the motor proteins actin and myosin. Muscles contract through the sliding of myosin and actin filaments along one another.

Example Question #64 : Types Of Cells And Tissues

Which of the following best describes the difference between the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in myocytes and the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (smooth ER) in other cells?

Possible Answers:

The SR synthesizes molecules and the smooth ER is involved in calcium storage

There are no differences between the SR and the smooth ER

The SR is significantly larger than the smooth ER

The SR is involved in calcium storage and the smooth ER synthesizes molecules

Correct answer:

The SR is involved in calcium storage and the smooth ER synthesizes molecules

Explanation:

The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is a specialized type of smooth endoplasmic reticulum in striated muscle tissue. The SR has a different function than the smooth ER. The SR is involved in calcium ion storage that is critical in contraction while the smooth ER synthesizes new molecules.

Example Question #38 : Understanding Muscle Cells

Myocytes and muscle tissue are formed during which of the following stages of embryogenesis?

Possible Answers:

Gastrulation

Myogenesis

Organogenesis

Neurulation

Correct answer:

Myogenesis

Explanation:

During embryogenesis, the process of myogenesis forms myocytes and muscle tissue.

Example Question #39 : Understanding Muscle Cells

Which of the following cellular structures in muscle tissue is comparable to cytoplasm?

Possible Answers:

Sarcoplasmic reticulum

Sarcomere

Myofibrils

Sarcoplasm

Correct answer:

Sarcoplasm

Explanation:

The sarcoplasm in muscle cells is comparable to the cytoplasm in other types of cells. The sarcoplasm is specialized in the high amount of myoglobin present. Its specialized regulation of calcium ion concentrations controls muscle contractions.

Example Question #65 : Types Of Cells And Tissues

Which of the following best describes “intercalated disks”?

Possible Answers:

Portions of the cell that contain high quantities of myoglobin

They form the boundaries of actin filaments

Structures that connect cardiac muscle cells

They are observable characteristics of striated muscle tissue

Correct answer:

Structures that connect cardiac muscle cells

Explanation:

Intercalated disks are structures that connect cardiac muscle cells, allowing them to work together and communicate within the heart. Intercalated disks are made up of different types of cell junctions and are observable under the microscope. This makes cardiac muscle tissue distinguishable.

Example Question #66 : Types Of Cells And Tissues

Which of the following is responsible for the red appearance of some muscles?

Possible Answers:

They are anaerobic

They have few mitochondria

They contain large quantities of myoglobin

They are fast twitch—fast contraction—muscles

Correct answer:

They contain large quantities of myoglobin

Explanation:

Muscle tissue can be divided into red—fast twitch—and white—slow twitch—muscle types. Red muscles have many capillaries, mitochondria, and myoglobin. Red muscles also perform aerobic activity.

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