AP Biology : Types of Cells and Tissues

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for AP Biology

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Example Questions

Example Question #21 : Understanding Epithelial And Endothelial Cells

In which of the following structures of the human body can transitional stratified epithelia be found?

Possible Answers:

Bladder

Ureter

Skin

Urethra

Correct answer:

Skin

Explanation:

Transitional epithelia are specialized stratified epithelial cell layers that are present in tissues that need to stretch; therefore, transitional epithelia are located in the urethra, ureter, and bladder.

Example Question #21 : Types Of Cells And Tissues

Which of the following best describes where epithelial tissue is found in the human body?

Possible Answers:

Lining of body cavities

Surface of blood vessels

Surface of organs

All of these

Correct answer:

All of these

Explanation:

Epithelial tissue is one of the major types of tissues in the human body. Epithelial cells function in secretion, absorption, protection, and transport. As a result, epithelial tissue is located at the interface of structures and tissues including the lining of body cavities, the surface of blood vessels, and the surface of organs.

Example Question #22 : Types Of Cells And Tissues

Which of the following best describes the role of cell junctions in epithelial tissue?

Possible Answers:

Allows for contact between neighboring cells

Prevents absorption of toxins

Facilitate the transport of chemical signals

Maintains cell structure and rigidity

Correct answer:

Allows for contact between neighboring cells

Explanation:

Cell junctions are common in epithelial tissue because they allow for communication and contact between neighboring cells.

Example Question #21 : Types Of Cells And Tissues

During embryogenesis, epithelial tissue originates from which of the following germ layers?

Possible Answers:

Mesoderm

Ectoderm

All of these 

Endoderm

Correct answer:

All of these 

Explanation:

During embryological development, epithelial tissue develops from all three germ layers (endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm).

Example Question #23 : Understanding Epithelial And Endothelial Cells

Which of the following structures is created from the infolding of epithelial tissues?

Possible Answers:

Keratin

Cell junctions

Stratified epithelia

Glands

Correct answer:

Glands

Explanation:

The infolding of epithelial tissue forms glands that function in the exocrine and endocrine systems. Glands secrete products that are taken up by the circulatory system for delivery.

Example Question #22 : Types Of Cells And Tissues

Which of the following best explains how epithelial cells are involved in sensory detection?

Possible Answers:

By sensing external signals through cilia

By chemotaxis

Infolding into glands 

Secretion of hormones

Correct answer:

By sensing external signals through cilia

Explanation:

Epithelial tissue has a sensory detection function that utilizes cilia to sense signals from the external environment. Once the signal is recognized and transduced, epithelial cells secrete messenger proteins that transmit the signal downstream.

Example Question #23 : Types Of Cells And Tissues

Which of the following is not true regarding keratinized stratified epithelia?

Possible Answers:

The exterior of the cell layers contains keratin

Keratinized epithelia are found in tissues that stretch

The exterior of the cell layers is dead

Keratinized epithelia are waterproof

Correct answer:

Keratinized epithelia are found in tissues that stretch

Explanation:

Keratinized epithelia are specialized stratified epithelia. They consist of a layer of dead exterior cells that contain the protein keratin. Keratin “waterproofs” the cells, offering protection. As a result, keratinized epithelia are commonly found in mammalian skin.

Example Question #24 : Types Of Cells And Tissues

Which of the following is true regarding the endothelium?

Possible Answers:

It is neither the lining of the lymphatic system nor a specialized type of epithelium

It is a specialized type of epithelium

It is the lining of the lymphatic system

It is both the lining of the lymphatic system and a specialized type of epithelium

Correct answer:

It is both the lining of the lymphatic system and a specialized type of epithelium

Explanation:

The endothelium is a specialized type of epithelium that lines the lymphatic and circulatory system. The endothelium originates from the mesoderm during embryogenesis and develops into squamous cells. Within the lymphatic and circulatory systems, endothelial cells function as barriers, in blood clotting, and in inflammation.

Example Question #24 : Understanding Epithelial And Endothelial Cells

Which of the following is the storage form of lipids in adipose tissue?

Possible Answers:

Starch

Triglycerides

Phospholipids

Proteins

Carbohydrates

Correct answer:

Triglycerides

Explanation:

The main storage form of lipids is in the form of triglycerides. Phospholipids are found in the cell membrane.

Example Question #1 : Understanding Muscle Cells

Which of the following characteristics of smooth muscle is false?

Possible Answers:

Smooth muscle is striated

Smooth muscle cells have a single, central corkscrew nucleus

Smooth muscle is moved via involuntary movement

All choices reflect true characteristics of smooth muscle

Correct answer:

Smooth muscle is striated

Explanation:

Smooth muscle is used for numerous involuntary actions of the body. It is not striated and has a single, central corkscrew nucleus.

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