5th Grade Science : Model the movement of matter among environments

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for 5th Grade Science

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Example Questions

Example Question #21 : Movement Of Matter

How is energy transformed and transferred as it flows through the food chain? (A graphic of a food chain is provided below.)

Screen shot 2020 06 26 at 3.50.53 pm

Possible Answers:

The Sun provides energy for decomposers who transfer that energy when eaten, the trend continues through the chain.

The Sun provides energy for producers who transfer that energy when eaten, the trend continues through the chain.

The Sun provides energy for consumers who transfer that energy when eaten, the trend continues through the chain.

Energy is not transferred or transformed as it flows through a food chain.

Correct answer:

The Sun provides energy for producers who transfer that energy when eaten, the trend continues through the chain.

Explanation:

The Department of Education and Training for Victoria State in Canada explains in scientific terms how energy is transformed and transferred through the food chain in a very clear way, "Energy is transferred between organisms in food webs from producers to consumers. The energy is used by organisms to carry out complex tasks. The vast majority of energy that exists in food webs originates from the sun and is converted (transformed) into chemical energy by the process of photosynthesis in plants. A small proportion of this chemical energy is transformed directly into heat when compounds are broken down during respiration in plants. The majority of the chemical energy stored in plants is transformed into other forms by an assortment of consumers, such as cows, rabbits, horses, sheep, caterpillars, and other insects eating plants. Some of the stored chemical energy in a producer such as grass is stored as chemical energy in the fat or protein in the first-order consumers that eat the grass. This energy is available for higher-order consumers. At each stage of a food chain, most of the chemical energy is converted to other forms such as heat and does not remain within the ecosystem."

Source: https://www.education.vic.gov.au/school/teachers/teachingresources/discipline/science/continuum/Pages/ecosystem.aspx#:~:text=Energy%20is%20transferred%20between%20organisms,process%20of%20photosynthesis%20in%20plants.

Example Question #21 : Movement Of Matter

How does energy flow within an ecosystem? (A graphic of a food chain is provided below.)

Screen shot 2020 06 29 at 12.33.33 pm

Possible Answers:

Energy begins with plants and is passed to decomposers; from there, it moves to consumers and ends with the Sun and water.

Energy is recycled in a food chain and flows between producers, consumers, and decomposers.

Energy is accumulated at the top of the chain, and the final consumer gets all of it.

Energy starts with consumers and is passed to others through family groups and friendships.

Correct answer:

Energy is recycled in a food chain and flows between producers, consumers, and decomposers.

Explanation:

The Department of Education and Training for Victoria State in Canada explains in scientific terms how energy is transferred through the food chain in an ecosystem, "Energy is transferred between organisms in food webs from producers to consumers. The energy is used by organisms to carry out complex tasks. The vast majority of energy that exists in food webs originates from the sun and is converted (transformed) into chemical energy by the process of photosynthesis in plants. A small proportion of this chemical energy is transformed directly into heat when compounds are broken down during respiration in plants. The majority of the chemical energy stored in plants is transformed into other forms by an assortment of consumers, such as cows, rabbits, horses, sheep, caterpillars, and other insects eating plants. Some of the stored chemical energy in a producer such as grass is stored as chemical energy in the fat or protein in the first-order consumers that eat the grass. This energy is available for higher-order consumers. At each stage of a food chain, most of the chemical energy is converted to other forms such as heat and does not remain within the ecosystem."

Energy is recycled in a food chain and flows between producers, consumers, and decomposers. There is no accumulation of energy; a final consumer does not end up with all the energy; it is recycled and transferred through prey/predator relationships.

Source: https://www.education.vic.gov.au/school/teachers/teachingresources/discipline/science/continuum/Pages/ecosystem.aspx#:~:text=Energy%20is%20transferred%20between%20organisms,process%20of%20photosynthesis%20in%20plants.

Example Question #23 : Movement Of Matter

Which list shows a possible order in which energy moves through an ecosystem if building a model?

Possible Answers:

Producer, Sun, carnivore, herbivore, and decomposer

Sun, producer, predator, consumer, and decomposer

Sun, producer, herbivore, carnivore, and decomposer

Herbivore, carnivore, Sun, producer, and decomposer

Correct answer:

Sun, producer, herbivore, carnivore, and decomposer

Explanation:

The Department of Education and Training for Victoria State in Canada explains in scientific terms how energy is transferred through an ecosystem, "Energy is transferred between organisms in food webs from producers to consumers. The energy is used by organisms to carry out complex tasks. The vast majority of energy that exists in food webs originates from the sun and is converted (transformed) into chemical energy by the process of photosynthesis in plants. A small proportion of this chemical energy is transformed directly into heat when compounds are broken down during respiration in plants. The majority of the chemical energy stored in plants is transformed into other forms by an assortment of consumers, such as cows, rabbits, horses, sheep, caterpillars, and other insects eating plants. Some of the stored chemical energy in a producer such as grass is stored as chemical energy in the fat or protein in the first-order consumers that eat the grass. This energy is available for higher-order consumers. At each stage of a food chain, most of the chemical energy is converted to other forms such as heat and does not remain within the ecosystem."

An example of a food chain is presented in the graphic below. It starts with the Sun providing the energy needed for the producer's photosynthesis. The plant is eaten by an herbivore, which is consumed by a carnivore (and there may be a few carnivores in the chain), and finally, the waste and remains for dead organisms are broken down by decomposers to be put back into the ecosystem.

Screen shot 2020 06 26 at 3.50.53 pm

Source: https://www.education.vic.gov.au/school/teachers/teachingresources/discipline/science/continuum/Pages/ecosystem.aspx#:~:text=Energy%20is%20transferred%20between%20organisms,process%20of%20photosynthesis%20in%20plants.

Example Question #24 : Movement Of Matter

What is the original source of almost all the energy in most ecosystems?

Possible Answers:

Protein

Heat

Sunlight

Soil

Correct answer:

Sunlight

Explanation:

The Department of Education and Training for Victoria State in Canada explains in scientific terms how energy is transferred through the food chain when all the necessary organisms are present, "Energy is transferred between organisms in food webs from producers to consumers. The energy is used by organisms to carry out complex tasks. The vast majority of energy that exists in food webs originates from the Sun and is converted (transformed) into chemical energy by the process of photosynthesis in plants. A small proportion of this chemical energy is transformed directly into heat when compounds are broken down during respiration in plants." Plants (producers) rely on sunlight to carry out photosynthesis. Though herbivores and carnivores do not get their energy directly from the Sun, they still rely on the plants (producers) who do and that energy is passed through the food chain.

Source: https://www.education.vic.gov.au/school/teachers/teachingresources/discipline/science/continuum/Pages/ecosystem.aspx#:~:text=Energy%20is%20transferred%20between%20organisms,process%20of%20photosynthesis%20in%20plants.

Example Question #25 : Movement Of Matter

In the model below, why are all of the arrows pointing to the mushrooms?

Screen shot 2020 06 29 at 3.07.02 pm

Possible Answers:

The mushrooms are consumers and break down decomposers and producers. They receive energy from all parts of the food chain.

The mushrooms are decomposers and break down consumers and producers. They receive energy from all parts of the food chain.

The mushrooms are producers and break down consumers and producers. They receive energy from all parts of the food chain.

The mushrooms are carnivores and break down herbivores and omnivores. They receive energy from all parts of the food chain.

Correct answer:

The mushrooms are decomposers and break down consumers and producers. They receive energy from all parts of the food chain.

Explanation:

Each arrow represents the direction energy is flowing. Energy moves to the mushrooms because they are decomposers, and they break down the remains of dead organisms. They distribute waste and nutrients back into the food chain through soil absorption.

Example Question #26 : Movement Of Matter

In 1859, a farmer brought 24 rabbits to Australia. There were many green plants for the rabbits to eat. The rabbits grew strong and reproduced rapidly. By 1950, Australia had 600 million rabbits! Unfortunately, the rabbits damaged the ecosystem. After that one-hundred-year period, there were no green plants left. Scientists decided to try to lower the number of rabbits by releasing a disease into their environment. The disease killed many of the rabbits. But the dead rabbits created problems for the environment. There were many dead rabbits, but eventually, decomposers cleaned them up.

Why were there no green plants left in the 1950s?

Possible Answers:

Australia is very hot, and many plants cannot survive in those conditions, so they withered and died.

The farmer removed the green plants so that there was room for his rabbits to run free and jump.

The disease from the rabbits spread to the green plants and infected them, so they slowly died off.

The rabbits had eaten them all, and they could not reproduce as fast or faster than the rabbits could eat them.

Correct answer:

The rabbits had eaten them all, and they could not reproduce as fast or faster than the rabbits could eat them.

Explanation:

Energy is transferred throughout the environment by consuming plants and animals, photosynthesis, and the breaking down of dead organisms. In this environment, a new consumer was introduced - the rabbit. They ate all of the producers (plants) in the area because they are herbivores. The plants could not keep up with their reproduction and were wiped out because of the large rabbit population and the number of plants needed to sustain them. The farmer would have to supplement the rabbits with other plant or plant by-products to keep his rabbit population growing.

Example Question #27 : Movement Of Matter

In 1859, a farmer brought 24 rabbits to Australia. There were many green plants for the rabbits to eat. The rabbits grew strong and reproduced rapidly. By 1950, Australia had 600 million rabbits! Unfortunately, the rabbits damaged the ecosystem. After that one-hundred-year period, there were no green plants left. Scientists decided to try to lower the number of rabbits by releasing a disease into their environment. The disease killed many of the rabbits. But the dead rabbits created problems for the environment. There were many dead rabbits, but eventually, decomposers cleaned them up.

What is a possible problem with introducing a disease into the rabbit population?

Possible Answers:

All of the answer choices are correct.

The disease could mutate and spread to other animals in the ecosystem.

The decomposers could catch the same disease from eating sick rabbits.

The decomposers cannot keep up with the number of dead rabbits.

None of the answer choices are correct.

Correct answer:

All of the answer choices are correct.

Explanation:

The answer choices are correct and list possible problems with introducing a disease into the rabbit population. With 600 million rabbits, it is possible that the decomposers cannot keep up with the number of dead rabbits. If there are too many rabbits dying and the decomposers can't keep up, it could lead to carcasses building up, which can introduce new disease, and it will look and smell bad. Decomposers break down the waste and dead organisms, and they could catch the same illness or become sickly because of eating the sick rabbits. Over time organisms build up immunities to disease, and the condition can mutate. Over time, the infection could spread to other animals or mutate, and new symptoms emerge with the rabbits.

Example Question #28 : Movement Of Matter

In 1859, a farmer brought 24 rabbits to Australia. There were many green plants for the rabbits to eat. The rabbits grew strong and reproduced rapidly. By 1950, Australia had 600 million rabbits! Unfortunately, the rabbits damaged the ecosystem. After that one-hundred-year period, there were no green plants left. Scientists decided to try to lower the number of rabbits by releasing a disease into their environment. The disease killed many of the rabbits. But the dead rabbits created problems for the environment. There were many dead rabbits, but eventually, decomposers cleaned them up.

How do the decomposers make the environment stronger?

Possible Answers:

They eat all of the dead organisms and waste and return the energy to the Earth.

They clean up the dead animals, so people think Australia looks better.

They get the waste out of the way, so there is more room for rabbits.

All of the answer choices are correct.

None of the answer choices are correct.

Correct answer:

They eat all of the dead organisms and waste and return the energy to the Earth.

Explanation:

Energy flows to the decomposers as they break down the remains of dead organisms. They distribute waste and nutrients back into the food chain through soil absorption. When the decomposers dispose of a carcass, they are absorbing energy to sustain themselves, but they are also returning it to the Earth for other organisms to use.

Example Question #29 : Movement Of Matter

Which role(s) is necessary to include in a model of a food chain?

Possible Answers:

Decomposer

Producer

Consumer

All of the answer choices are correct.

The Sun

Correct answer:

All of the answer choices are correct.

Explanation:

Organisms are dependent on each other for a source of energy. Producers rely on the Sun, consumers rely on producers and smaller prey earlier in the chain, and final consumers need weaker animals to feed on. Decomposers rely on the waste and carcasses of dead consumers, and they return nutrients to the soil. Each organism has a role to play, and the others will not survive if one link in the chain goes missing.

Example Question #30 : Movement Of Matter

In the graphic below, why are multiple arrows pointing at the mushrooms?

Screen shot 2020 09 24 at 9.35.42 am

Possible Answers:

The mushrooms represent the consumer that absorbs energy from eating other living things.

The mushrooms represent the producer that creates food from water, sunlight, and carbon dioxide.

The mushrooms represent the decomposer that breaks down waste from animal and plant remains.

None of the answer choices are correct.

Correct answer:

The mushrooms represent the decomposer that breaks down waste from animal and plant remains.

Explanation:

The mushrooms represent the decomposer that breaks down waste from animal and plant remains. Multiple arrows point to the mushrooms because they receive energy from all organisms once they have died.

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