SAT II World History : Southwest Asia

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for SAT II World History

varsity tutors app store varsity tutors android store

Example Questions

← Previous 1

Example Question #1 : Impact Of Islam

All of the following were a direct result of the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople EXCEPT

Possible Answers:

increased trade routes and diplomatic relations between Christians and Muslims.

the exodus of Greek speaking scholars to Italy, helping spark the Italian Renaissance.

the ability of Ottoman armies to make campaigns into Christian Europe.

the closing off of the Bosphorous Strait to European trading vessels.

the establishment of a fuller Ottoman Empire with its capital in Constantinople.

Correct answer:

increased trade routes and diplomatic relations between Christians and Muslims.

Explanation:

The Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II led an army to Constantinople in the spring of 1453 to siege the city. After a month, the Ottomans were successful in sacking the city, and destroying the Eastern Romany (or Byzantine) Empire. The effect of this sack was massive, allowing the Ottoman armies free reign into Europe, giving the Ottomans control of the Bosphorus Strait and the Black Sea, sending Greek scholars into exile,  and generally worsening relations between Christian Europe and Islamic governments in the Middle East.

Example Question #2 : Impact Of Islam

The Battle of Talas was fought in 751 CE between __________.

Possible Answers:

Indian and Mongol armies

Arab and Chinese armies 

Chinese and Mongol armies

Chinese and Japanese armies

Indian and Sikh armies 

Correct answer:

Arab and Chinese armies 

Explanation:

The Battle of Talas was fought between the Arab Abbasid Caliphate and the Chinese Tang Dynasty in 751 CE. Prior to the battle, Chinese forces had been spreading rapidly westward and facing little opposition; however, at the Battle of Talas, they were defeated by the Arab forces, and Chinese expansion was halted for several centuries. The battle is considered important for transferring control over the “Silk Road” from Chinese to Arab hands and for turning back the massive forces of the Tang Dynasty. Also, it is sometimes said that Arabs learned the art of paper making from the Chinese prisoners they captured in the battle, thus spreading paper-making technology to the Middle East and eventually Europe.

Example Question #3 : Impact Of Islam

Mehmet II is most famous for __________.

Possible Answers:

conquering the Balkans

spreading Islam to India

conquering Constantinople

conquering Spain

spreading Islam to North Africa

Correct answer:

conquering Constantinople

Explanation:

Mehmet II was a Sultan of the Ottoman Empire who in 1453 conquered the city of Constantinople, later renamed Istanbul. Mehmet II is remembered as a great hero in Turkish society and is often referred to as Mehmet the Great or Mehmet the Conqueror.

Example Question #4 : Impact Of Islam

The Battle of Tours, in 732 CE, was notable for __________.

Possible Answers:

removing the forces of Islam from Spain

halting the expansion of Islam into Western Europe

unifying the forces of Western Europe against Islam

capturing the Holy Land from Saladin and his forces

capturing North Africa for the growing Frankish Empire

Correct answer:

halting the expansion of Islam into Western Europe

Explanation:

After the death of the prophet Muhammad, the forces of Islam expanded dramatically across North Africa and the Middle East. By 732 CE, they had crossed into mainland Europe and controlled much of modern-day Spain and southern France. At the Battle of Tours, they were defeated by the Frankish forces led by Charles Martel (often called Charles the Hammer). This is often considered a turning point in world history as the forces of Islam would never again penetrate so far into Europe. 

Example Question #1 : The Crusades

The First Crusade was initiated by __________.

Possible Answers:

Pope Adrian IV

Pope Innocent II

Pope Urban II 

Pope Gregory VII

Pope Alexander VI

Correct answer:

Pope Urban II 

Explanation:

The First Crusade was initiated by Pope Urban II in 1095 with the original aim of assisting the Byzantine Empire in defending itself against the invading Turkish forces; however, the mission quickly expanded to include liberating the Holy City of Jerusalem from under Muslim control. Jerusalem was “liberated” in 1099, but this incident would mark several hundred years of competition between the Christian forces of Europe and the Islamic forces of the Near East that are collectively called “the Crusades.”

Example Question #2 : The Crusades

Which of these Popes is best remembered for initiating the First Crusade?

Possible Answers:

Pope Innocent III

Pope Alexander IV

Pope Alexander VI

Pope Urban II

Pope Clement III

Correct answer:

Pope Urban II

Explanation:

The First Crusades were initiated by Pope Urban II in 1095 with the primary goal of retaking the Holy Land and Jerusalem from the "infidels." 

Example Question #3 : The Crusades

The armies of the First Crusade were made up primarily of __________ soldiers.

Possible Answers:

French

German

Spanish

Greek

Italian

Correct answer:

French

Explanation:

The armies of the First Crusade was made up primarily of young French soldiers and nobles.

Example Question #4 : The Crusades

What was the primary goal of the Crusades? 

Possible Answers:

To retake the Holy Land for Christendom

To protect Venetian trading interests in the Mediterranean

To remove Ottoman influence from the Balkans

To protect the interests of the Byzantine Empire

To remove Arab influence from the Iberian Peninsula

Correct answer:

To retake the Holy Land for Christendom

Explanation:

The Crusades is the name given to a series of conflicts between Christian Europe and the Islamic Empire of the Near Middle East between the eleventh and fourteenth Centuries. The primary goal of the Crusades was to retake the city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land of Palestine from the "infidels." It had varying degrees of success. 

Example Question #5 : The Crusades

In what way did the Crusades primarily contribute to the growing wealth of Italian city states like Venice and Florence?

Possible Answers:

The cities captured in the Crusades needed constant resupplying from the merchant ships of the Italian city-states.

The Crusades provided a host of slaves to use for manual labor in the development of infrastructure in the Italian city-states. 

The Crusades provided plunder that was shipped back to the Italian city-states and and knowledge that was shared with their populations. 

None of these answers is correct; the Crusades contributed to the decline of the Italian city-states. 

The Crusades led to an alliance between the Italian city-states and the Muslim Caliphate that increased the wealth and combined knowledge of both parties immensely. 

Correct answer:

The cities captured in the Crusades needed constant resupplying from the merchant ships of the Italian city-states.

Explanation:

The First Crusade was able to successfully take Jerusalem and a few other isolated areas of the Holy Land, but the people who remained there were alone in a large area surrounded by hostile Arab enemies. They required constant resupplying from the trading ships of the Italian city-states, who subsequently grew immensely wealthy from the trading relationship.

Example Question #2 : The Crusades

The Third Crusade began when the forces of __________ conquered Jerusalem.

Possible Answers:

Suleiman the Magnificent

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

Mehmet II

Harun al-Rashid

Saladin

Correct answer:

Saladin

Explanation:

The Holy Land and Jerusalem, captured in the First Crusade, were conquered by the Islamic forces of Saladin in 1187 CE. This led directly to the Third Crusade, waged from 1189 to 1192 CE, which did not result in the European forces retaking Jerusalem; however, it did lead Saladin to open the city of Jerusalem to protected Christian pilgrimage.

← Previous 1
Learning Tools by Varsity Tutors