SAT II World History : Global Developments

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for SAT II World History

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Example Questions

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Example Question #1 : Transportation

Which of these empires did the most to facilitate trade between the Far East and the European and Arabian worlds?

Possible Answers:

The Olmec Empire

The Iberian Empire

The Mughal Empire

The Hunnic Empire

The Mongol Empire

Correct answer:

The Mongol Empire

Explanation:

The Mongol Empire is the largest land empire the world has ever seen. At its height, it stretched from Siberia down to the Middle East and from China to Eastern Europe. The Mongols committed some of the worst atrocities in human history to conquer their empire, but once their empire was conquered, it facilitated trade in a way unseen previously in human history. The fact that all territory between China and the Mediterranean was effectively governed by one administration ensured that trade could flow freely and people could move safely as never before.

Example Question #2 : 500 C.E. To 1500 C.E.

Who is credited with connecting Europe and Asia into one trade network?

Possible Answers:

Attila the Hun 

Otto von Bismarck 

Justinian I

Genghis Khan 

Kublai Khan 

Correct answer:

Genghis Khan 

Explanation:

Genghis Khan conquered the largest empire the world has ever seen. His empire stretched from China all the way to Central Europe and from Northern Russia down to the Middle East. It was the first incidence in human history where the massive stretch of land between Asia and Europe could be considered somewhat unified and organized. This connected Europe and Asia into one cohesive trade network for the first time in human history and helped facilitate the exchange of ideas, produce, and disease across the entire landmass.

Example Question #1 : Political And Governmental Structures 600 Ce To 1450

Which of the following best defines meritocracy?

Possible Answers:

A system where promotions are made based on ability rather than familial status

The name given to the Japanese concept of chivalry and honor

A religious sect of ancient Confucianism 

The name given to Genghis Kahn’s style of intimidation and warfare

None of the other answer choices is correct.

Correct answer:

A system where promotions are made based on ability rather than familial status

Explanation:

Meritocracy is the name given to a system in which promotions are made and jobs awarded based on the ability of an individual rather than the status of his or her family. Genghis Khan famously introduced this concept to his Mongolian forces, greatly improving the efficiency of his forces and the loyalty of his men.

Example Question #3 : 500 C.E. To 1500 C.E.

During the eleventh and twelfth centuries, trebuchets began to emerge in Europe and the Middle East; they were primarily used __________.

Possible Answers:

as close-combat weapons 

for caring for the sick and wounded 

to spot enemies from a safe distance 

for defensive purposes 

as siege weapons 

Correct answer:

as siege weapons 

Explanation:

Trebuchets are siege weapons that became a popular component of medieval war-making in the twelfth century. A trebuchet is similar in design to a catapult, although significantly more complicated and effective. Trebuchets were eventually phased out in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries with the advent of gunpowder and cannons.

Example Question #1 : 500 C.E. To 1500 C.E.

The invention of gunpowder occurred in __________.

Possible Answers:

England

Germany

Russia

China

France

Correct answer:

China

Explanation:

The invention of gunpowder happened in China sometime around the ninth or tenth century. The China of this time period was a highly innovative society that gave the world many notable inventions, including block printing and compass navigation at sea. Gunpowder spread across Central Asia and the Middle East before arriving in Europe around the thirteenth century.

Example Question #7 : 500 C.E. To 1500 C.E.

Why is Charles Martel considered significant to the rise of Christianity in Europe? 

Possible Answers:

His armies halted the advance of Islam into Spain.

He retook the Holy Land during the First Crusade and defended it against Muslim invasion.

He ensured the continuation of the Papacy when he took his armies to defend Rome from barbarian conquest.

His armies halted the advance of Islam into France.

He wrote extensively on theology and spread Christianity around the British Isles and Scandinavia.

Correct answer:

His armies halted the advance of Islam into France.

Explanation:

Charles Martel was the ruler of the Frankish people in the early eighth century C.E. He is most famous for defending the realms of Christendom from Islamic invasion in 732 C.E. when he won the Battle of Tours. Islamic armies never reached further north than Spain in Western Europe. Without Martel's victory, it is very possible that all of Europe would eventually have been Islamic instead of Christianity, and the whole history of the world would be very different.

Example Question #4 : 500 C.E. To 1500 C.E.

Pope Gregory VII banned lay investiture because __________.

Possible Answers:

it allowed the Holy Roman Emperor to appoint church officials

it threatened to undermine the legitimacy of the Holy Roman Emperor

it served to highlight the intolerable conditions of the peasantry

it prevented the Papal States from trading with the rest of the Italian city states

it allowed church officials to pardon the sins of rich people in exchange for bribes

Correct answer:

it allowed the Holy Roman Emperor to appoint church officials

Explanation:

Lay investiture is the name given to the common medieval practice whereby the Holy Roman Emperor, or another secular ruler, would appoint church officials without the consent of the Papacy. Gregory VII saw this as a challenge to his rule and banned the practice. He also subsequently excommunicated Emperor Henry IV when he ignored this rule. 

Example Question #1 : Global Developments

The split between Western and Eastern Christianity was formalized with the excommunication of the Patriarch of Constantinople in which century?

Possible Answers:

The eighth century

The eleventh century

The seventh century

The ninth century

The tenth century

Correct answer:

The eleventh century

Explanation:

The schism between Eastern and Western Christianity had been developing for several decades before it was finally formalized in 1054 (the eleventh century) with the excommunication of the Patriarch of Constantinople by Pope Leo IX. From this point on, Christianity was divided between a Catholic West and an Orthodox East. The main cause of the schism was the centralizing and autocratic power of the Papacy in the eleventh century, which was challenged by the imperial power of Constantinople. This was the first of many subsequent divisions of Christianity that have occurred in the centuries since.

Example Question #2 : Global Developments

Simony is the practice of __________.

Possible Answers:

selling positions in the Catholic church

marrying while being a member of the clergy 

waiting until adulthood to be baptized 

pardoning sins in exchange for money 

refuting the authority of the Pope on both secular and spiritual matters

Correct answer:

selling positions in the Catholic church

Explanation:

Simony is the practice of selling (or buying) positions in the Catholic Church. Although technically forbidden under church canon law, it was nonetheless extremely common throughout the early medieval period. It was an important part of various controversies throughout the Medieval period and contributed to the loss of faith, among certain parts of the European population, in the Catholic Church.

Example Question #3 : Rise Of Christianity

The Spanish Inquisition was originally intended to __________.

Possible Answers:

torture and execute heretics within the Catholic faith

replace Catholicism with Calvinism in Spanish territories in Europe

prosecute and punish Protestants within the Spanish Empire

prosecute and punish Protestants in the Spanish Netherlands

determine the legitimacy of Jews and Muslims claiming to be converting to Christianity

Correct answer:

determine the legitimacy of Jews and Muslims claiming to be converting to Christianity

Explanation:

The Spanish Inquisition was founded in 1478 by the significant Spanish monarchs Ferdinand and Isabella. It was originally intended to judge the legitimacy of those Jews and Muslims who rather than choosing to flee Spain (both groups were banished from the country) instead opted to convert to Christianity. The Inquisition was set up to determine if these conversions were false or not. Later, the Inquisition morphed into a device to wield state power and ensure uniformity of religion through torture and execution. Contrary to popular belief, it was rarely used within Spain to torture Protestants simply because there were so few Protestants in Spain. The Spanish Inquisition would last, in some form or another, until the early nineteenth century.

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