NCLEX : Causes and Treatments of Tumors

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for NCLEX

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Example Questions

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Example Question #822 : Nclex

What muscle pathology is often linked to small cell lung cancer?

Possible Answers:

Duchenne muscular dystrophy

Lambert-Eaton syndrome

Guillain–Barré syndrome

Rhabdomyosarcoma

Correct answer:

Lambert-Eaton syndrome

Explanation:

Approximately 60% of patients diagnosed with Lambert-Eaton syndrome have an underlying cancer, most often small cell lung cancer. Lambert-Eaton syndrome is an autoimmune disorder in which the release of neurotransmitter is not permitted due to antibodies against the presynaptic calcium channels. This results in muscle weakness in the limbs. The other conditions listed are not associated with any respiratory cancers.

Example Question #21 : Conditions And Treatments

60% of cases of stomach cancer in the United States are associated with what infection?

Possible Answers:

Salmonella enterica 

Helicobacter pylori 

Escherichia coli

Staphylococcus aureus

Correct answer:

Helicobacter pylori 

Explanation:

Helicobacter pylori is present in the stomach of 60% of individuals with gastric cancer. Cancer in these cases may be caused by chronic inflammation at the site of infection, resulting in metaplasia.

Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica, and Escherichia coli are all common causes of gastroenteritis but are not associated with malignancy.

Example Question #3 : Causes And Treatments Of Tumors

Which of the following is not a risk factor for renal cell carcinoma?

Possible Answers:

Smoking

Obesity

Alcohol

Hypertension

Correct answer:

Alcohol

Explanation:

Smoking, obesity, and high blood pressure are among the most common risk factors for development of renal cell carcinoma. Other risk factors include genetic susceptibility, diuretic use, and male gender. Alcohol consumption has not been associated with increased rates of renal cell cancer.

Example Question #4 : Causes And Treatments Of Tumors

Renal cell carcinoma can cause what paraneoplastic syndrome?

Possible Answers:

Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome

Polymyositis

Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH)

Hypercalcemia

Correct answer:

Hypercalcemia

Explanation:

Renal cell carcinoma can cause hypercalcemia, due to secretion of PTHrP (parathyroid hormone-related protein).

SIADH and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome are both associated with small-cell lung cancer, while polymyositis is associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

Example Question #5 : Causes And Treatments Of Tumors

What cell line is metaplastic in multiple myeloma? 

Possible Answers:

T cells

Plasma cells (also known as memory B cells)

Natural killer cells

Neutrophils

Correct answer:

Plasma cells (also known as memory B cells)

Explanation:

Multiple myeloma is caused by metaplasia of plasma cells. No other white blood cell type is typically metaplastic, though abnormal plasma cell accumulation in bone marrow does interfere with the synthesis of all other blood cell types.

Example Question #6 : Causes And Treatments Of Tumors

Hepatocellular carcinoma is also associated with what toxin? 

Possible Answers:

Asbestos

Lead

Aflatoxin

Organophosphates

Correct answer:

Aflatoxin

Explanation:

Hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with exposure to aflatoxin, from Aspergillus species, which can be found in many foods. Most commonly contaminated foods are corn, peanuts (and peanut butter), pistachios, brazil nuts, chillies, black pepper, dried fruit, and figs.

Asbestos is linked to mesothelioma, organophosphate exposure is linked to leukemia, and lead exposure has not been directly associated with any increase in malignancy, although current studies are pending further evidence.

Example Question #7 : Causes And Treatments Of Tumors

Suzie is a 42-year-old female and has recently visited a genetic counselor after referral by her primary care physician. She has a family history of breast cancer on her father's side. She was found to not have the cancer-linked BRCA 1 or 2 genetic mutations. The genetic counselor explained to her that __________.

Possible Answers:

she cannot develop breast, ovarian, or uterine cancer

she cannot develop breast cancer, but can develop ovarian or uterine cancer

she cannot develop uterine cancer, but can develop ovarian or breast cancer

she may still develop breast cancer, but not ovarian or uterine cancer

she may still develop breast, ovarian, or uterine cancer

Correct answer:

she may still develop breast, ovarian, or uterine cancer

Explanation:

The incidence of cancer-linked genes can increase an individual's risk of developing cancer. However, their absence does not guarantee that the individual will not develop cancers of any kind.

Example Question #8 : Causes And Treatments Of Tumors

Alice is a 25-year-old female who is visiting her primary care physician for a routine physical. Which of the following may be conducted at the appointment?

Possible Answers:

A rapid antigen detection test

A urine analysis

A cervical cerclage

A vaginal ultrasound

A papanicolaou test

Correct answer:

A papanicolaou test

Explanation:

A papanicolaou test (pap smear) may be preformed routinely on adult women as a screening for cervical cancer. A rapid antigen detection test (rapid strep test), urine analysis, cervical cerclage, or vaginal ultrasound would not be part of routine screening.

Example Question #9 : Causes And Treatments Of Tumors

John is a 60-year-old man who has a first degree relative recently diagnosed with cancer. He asks his nurse what he can do to prevent himself from developing cancer. Which of the following is incorrect? 

Possible Answers:

Rest for 6-8 hours nightly

Eat a healthy diet

Exercise at least for at least 150 minutes weekly

Drink 3 to 5 glasses of green tea with antioxidants daily

Wear sunscreen when exposed to the sun

Correct answer:

Drink 3 to 5 glasses of green tea with antioxidants daily

Explanation:

Green tea has not been proven to decrease the risk of developing cancer. All other precautions have been shown to decrease the risk of developing various cancers.

Example Question #10 : Causes And Treatments Of Tumors

Your patient is experiencing diarrhea after receiving chemotherapy. Which of the following is an appropriate nursing intervention?

Possible Answers:

Encourage the patient to remain as sedentary as possible

Instruct the patient to eat a diet high in soluble fiber

Encourage the patient not to eat until the diarrhea passes

Advocate for the patient to eat a high-residue diet

Instruct the patient to take Senokot-S daily

Correct answer:

Instruct the patient to eat a diet high in soluble fiber

Explanation:

A diet high in soluble fiber will help to decrease the effects of diarrhea. Note that soluble fiber also provides relief from constipation. Senokot-S is a stool softener that will cause increased diarrhea. Remaining sedentary and not eating are not necessary and will not help a patient recovering from chemotherapy. 

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