Human Anatomy and Physiology : Identifying Bones of the Trunk and Core

Study concepts, example questions & explanations for Human Anatomy and Physiology

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Example Questions

Example Question #11 : Identifying Bones Of The Trunk And Core

What bone is know as the atlas?

Possible Answers:

The first cervical vertebra

The second cervical vertebra

The clavicle

The first thoracic vertebra

Correct answer:

The first cervical vertebra

Explanation:

The atlas is the first cervical vertebra, because it holds up the "globe" (the head.) The second cervical vertebra is know as the axis. The other vertebrae are named based on their location within the vertebral column.

Example Question #11 : Identifying Bones Of The Trunk And Core

Which answer choice correctly states the number of each type of vertebrae?

Possible Answers:

7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 4 coccygeal

4 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 7 coccygeal

12 cervical, 7 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 4 sacral, and 5 coccygeal

7 cervical, 5 thoracic, 4 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 12 coccygeal

12 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 4 coccygeal

Correct answer:

7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 4 coccygeal

Explanation:

The human vertebral column consists of 33 vertebrae. The lumbar vertebrae at the base of the spine are thickest and bear most of the weight of the trunk. The bottom 5 sacral vertebrae and 4 coccygeal vertebrae are fused. Both sets of fused vertebrae comprise two different bones, the sacrum and the coccyx respectively. The 12 thoracic vertebrae contain facets on the bodies and on the transverse processes (except T11 and T12) for articulation with the ribs.

Example Question #11 : Bones

Which bone composed of a set of fused vertebrae articulates with the hip bones?

Possible Answers:

Lumbar 

Coccyx

Sacryx

None of these

Sacrum

Correct answer:

Sacrum

Explanation:

Both the coccyx and the sacrum are comprised of fused vertebrae, but only the sacrum articulates with the hip bones and it does so at the sacroiliac joints. The sacrum is comprised of 5 fused vertebrae.

Example Question #11 : Bones

Which structure of the vertebrae can be easily felt under the skin?

Possible Answers:

Transverse foramen

Body

Transverse process

Spinous process

Pedicle

Correct answer:

Spinous process

Explanation:

The spinous process on cervical vertebra number 7 can be felt under the skin and even seen. C7 is the largest and most inferior vertebra of the cervical vertebrae and the spinous process serves as an attachment point for muscles. The transverse foramen is a hole in the direction the vertebral column runs and allows nerves and blood vessels to run the length of the vertebral column. The transverse process is also a point of attachment, but cannot be felt as they extends laterally from the spine. The pedicle allows for the passage of spinal nerves and cannot be palpated. The body is positioned anteriorly, and thus cannot be palpated.

Example Question #11 : Bones

Which of the following is not a region of the vertebral column?

Possible Answers:

Thoracic

Cervical

Spine

Lumbar

Coccygeal

Correct answer:

Spine

Explanation:

The correct answer is spine. The spine is another word for the vertebral column but is not a region within it.

The vertebral column consists of 33 vertebrae that are divided into 5 regions:

  • cervical (neck) = 7 vertebrae
  • thoracic (chest) = 12 vertebrae
  • lumbar (lower back) = 5 vertebrae
  • sacrum = 5 fused vertebrae
  • coccyx (tailbone) = 4 (3-5) fused vertebrae

The regions of the vertebral (or spinal) column are divided by the curves of the spine. The vertebrae are named based on each region and within each region the vertebrae are mostly alike, with small variations. The vertebrae in cervical, thoracic and lumbar regions are independent bones and are named by region: cervical (C1-C7), thoracic (T1-T12), lumbar (L1-L5). The sacrum (S1-S5) and coccyx are fused and their vertebrae cannot independently move.

The function of the vertebral column is to surround and protect the spinal cord, which travels along the spinal canal. The spinal cord supplies nerves and receives information from the peripheral nervous system.

Example Question #11 : Bones

Which ribs are false ribs?

Possible Answers:

Ribs 7-10

Ribs 11 and 12

Ribs 8-12

Ribs 1-7

Correct answer:

Ribs 8-12

Explanation:

The ribs consist of 12 pairs of bones that form the majority of the thoracic cage. False ribs are ribs numbered 8-12. Ribs 8-10 form the anterior costal margin by connecting to the costal cartilage above them.

True ribs are the first seven ribs (ribs 1-7). True ribs are attached to the sternum by costal cartilages. Typical ribs are ribs 3-9. They are called typical because they all have a head, neck, tubercle, and body/shaft. The tenth rib attaches directly to the tenth vertebra, instead of in between vertebrae like ribs 2-9. Lastly we have ribs 11 and 12, which are the “floating” ribs. They are only connected to the vertebrae, and do not articulate with the sternum.

Example Question #11 : Bones

Which of the following types of vertebrae are recognizable in that there is a foramen in the transverse process?

Possible Answers:

Thoracic

Sacral

Cervical

Coccygeal

Lumbar

Correct answer:

Cervical

Explanation:

The cervical vertebrae have a foramen in the transverse process. These foramina transmit the vertebral arteries that help supply the brain. There are no foramina in the thoracic, lumbar, or coccygeal vertebrae; the sacral vertebrae have only sacral foramina.

Example Question #12 : Bones

Which of the following types of vertebrae have facets for the articulation of the ribs called costal pits?

Possible Answers:

Cervical

Sacral

Lumbar

Coccygeal

Thoracic

Correct answer:

Thoracic

Explanation:

The thoracic vertebrae have facets called costal pits, with which the ribs articulate. No other types of vertebrae have this feature, nor do other types of vertebrae articulate with the ribs.

Example Question #13 : Bones

Which of the following ribs are considered true ribs?

Possible Answers:

3-9

8-10

1-2 and 10-12

11-12

1-7

Correct answer:

1-7

Explanation:

True ribs are ribs that articulate with the sternum (ribs 1-7). False ribs articulate to costocartilage (ribs 8-10). Ribs 11-12 are floating ribs.

Example Question #11 : Bones

Which of the following bones articulates with the sternum and the scapula, maintaining a constant distance between the two in order to add strength to the shoulder girdle?

Possible Answers:

Glenoid fossa.

Xiphoid process

Clavicle

Manubrium

Humerus

Correct answer:

Clavicle

Explanation:

The clavicle is a long bone that articulates with the sternum and scapula, adding strength to the shoulder girdle by maintaining the two at a constant distance.
The manubrium is the topmost of three segments that make up the sternum; it articulates with the clavicle and the first two ribs. The humerus is the largest bone of the upper limb. The xiphoid process is the often cartilaginous tab at the lowest point of the sternum; it becomes bony in later years. The glenoid fossa is the point of articulation of the head of the humerus on the scapula.

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